Biocomputational puzzles
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Biocomputational Puzzles. Dennis Shasha Courant Institute, New York Univ [email protected]

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Biocomputational puzzles

Biocomputational Puzzles

Dennis Shasha

Courant Institute, New York Univ

[email protected]

Collaborations with labs of Philip Benfey (bio, Duke) , Gloria Coruzzi (bio, NYU), Allen Mincer (physics, NYU), Ken Birnbaum, Laurence Lejay, Peter Palenchar (bio, NYU), Rodrigo Gutierrez, Manny Kitari, Chris Poultny


Overview

Overview

  • Activist Data Mining

  • Transcription factor-cis-element prediction

  • Visualization tool for multi-factor data

  • Time series for fun and profit.


Classical data mining

Classical Data Mining

  • Wait for data to appear

  • Find patterns in it.

  • Hope they are actionable.

  • Works well when data is pertinent, e.g. Amazon’s other books recommendation, extrapolation of trends.


Activist data mining

Activist Data Mining

  • Propose initial experiments to explore subspace of some predefined search space

  • Evaluate the results

  • Propose new experiments, evaluate, propose, evaluate, propose ….

  • Iterative and adaptive


Which is better for natural science

Which is Better for Natural Science?

  • Classical is obviously right when you have no control over data generation.

  • When you do, active data mining (active learning) may work much better.


Natural science lesson 1

Natural Science Lesson 1

  • Natural scientists, like most people, care about their own time. Computational time matters only if it costs people time.

  • If you can get more insight out of their data, they like you.

  • If you can save them experimental time, they love you.

  • If you can lead them to new discoveries, they will give you cookies!


Biocomputational puzzles

Activist Data Mining Philosophy

Passive Approach: Natural scientists do experiments.

Computer Scientists help to glean something from it.

  • Activist Approach: Computer scientists help

  • Design experiments

  • Analyze results

  • Design new experiments based on results


Biocomputational puzzles

Activist Data Mining Philosophy (Reminder)

Passive Approach: Natural scientists do experiments.

Computer Scientists help to glean something from it.

  • Activist Approach: Computer scientists help

  • Design experiments

  • Analyze results

  • Design new experiments based on results

  • Our particular methodology:

  • Adaptive Combinatorial Design

  • Our innovation: applying this combinatorial design in an interative way.


Biocomputational puzzles

Safecracking Puzzle: you are a thief…

Combinatorial Safe: 10 switches with 3 settings each. Over 59,000 (3^10) possible configurations. However there is a certain pair of switches (you don’t know which pair) and a certain pair of values of those switches that will open the safe.

Illustration:

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10

C A

Challenge:

Open the safe in 15 configurations or fewer.


Biocomputational puzzles

Scientific Goal

We want to describe the factors (e.g. light, carbon, nitrogen….) that determine whether plants will produce critical amino acids and how those factors interact.

Long-term goal: Virtual plant (and later … frankenfoods)


Biocomputational puzzles

Light, Carbon and Amino acids

differentially regulate N-assimilation genes

-- pathway diagram

Carbon

Carbon

Light

Light

Amino acids

GS2

AS1

Amino acids

Asn

C4:N2

Gln

C5:N2

C:N

C:N


Biocomputational puzzles

Design Space

  • Inputs:*Light

  • *Starvation to Various Nutrients

  • *Carbon

  • *Inorganic N (NO3/NH4)

  • *Organic N (Glu)

  • *Organic N (Gln)

If inputs are take binary values (first approximation)

6 binary (+/-) inputs= 26 or 64 input combinations

(or treatments)

Use 2-factor combinatorial design to reduce

number of treatment combinations required to cover

the experimental space, assuming that important

interactions will have to do with two factors.


Biocomputational puzzles

“Combinatorial design” finds six conditions to explore every

pairwise interaction. Want to discover important factors.

Notice: for each pair of input factors and combination of values

from those factors, some experiment has that combination, e.g. Light

No carbon; Starve No Glu.

After doing this experiment,

certain factors jump out as worth further study: Illumination, Carbon (both have significant repressive correlations)


Biocomputational puzzles

Adaptation Following No Pivot Design

Key to activist data mining is adapting to results of experiments already done. Many ways to do this, e.g.Tong, S. & Koller, D. Active Learning for Structure in Bayesian Networks. Seventeenth International Joint Conference on ArtificialIntelligence, 863-869 (2001).

Advocates pool-based active learning. Pool of unlabeled instances (don’t know output value). An active learner chooses which instance to query next in hope it will reduce set of possible answers.

Ideker, T. E., Thorsson, V. & Karp, R. M. Discovery of regulatory interactions through perturbation: inference and experimental design. Pac Symp Biocomput, 305-16 (2000).

Similar idea with Boolean circuits.


Biocomputational puzzles

Our Use of Adaptation

Find most important inputs in order to see their effects in more detail.

That is, we focus our search space on those inputs that are likely to exert the most influence over outputs of interest.


Biocomputational puzzles

Three questions of particular interest

  • Is any single factor so important that its presence determines the outcome regardless of the other contexts? (e.g. Light in context X is repressive compared with Dark in context Y for all X, Y)

  • Is a factor important enough that it has an effect for any particular context? (e.g. for all X, Light in context X is repressive compared with Dark in X)

  • Is a factor consistently important when compared with a fixed background? (e.g. for all X, is Light in context X repressive compared with background?)


Biocomputational puzzles

Pivot Design 1: Start with no pivot design

Create dark and light pairs by just setting Illumin to light and dark respectively.


Biocomputational puzzles

Pivot Design 2: Dark Design

Exactly the same as no pivot tests but with DARK everywhere. Requires only three more experiments than in no pivot case.


Biocomputational puzzles

Pivot Design 3: Light Design

Exactly the same as DARK tests but with Light everywhere. Again, three more experiments than in no pivot case.

Important: First experiment for light = First Experiment for Dark except for Illumination itself. Differs only in pivot. Minimal pair.


Biocomputational puzzles

What Accomplished

  • A set of well-spaced minimal pairs, differing only in the pivot. Suggests answers for first two questions:

  • Is any single factor so important that its presence determines the outcome regardless of the other contexts? (e.g. Light in context X is repressive compared with Dark in context Y for all X, Y).

  • No, for this biological system.

  • Is a factor important enough that it has an effect for any particular context? (e.g. for all X, Light in context X is repressive compared with Dark in X)

  • Yes, for this biological system.


Biocomputational puzzles

“Half-pivot” Light against a fixed background

Exactly the same as LIGHT tests but with one added background.

Allows us to create a circuit (binary in this case because inputs are binary.)


Biocomputational puzzles

C

L

L

C

S

N

E

Q

Q

S

Q

S

E

Q

S

N

Q

N

S

N

E

S

E

E

AND

AND

AND

AND

AND

AND

AND

S

N

E

Q

OR

OR

AND

AND

AND

AND

S

N

E

OR

ASN1

OR

AND

AND

AND

AND

OR

OR

OR

AND

AND

AND

AND

AND

AND

AND

N

E

Q

S

N

Q

Q

S

E

N

N

E

Q

N

E

Q

S

Q

S

N

C

L

L

C

B

Fig. 3


Biocomputational puzzles

Boolean Not Only Representation

Circuits could consist of continuous functions.

D`Haeseleer, P., Liang, S. & Somogyi, R. Genetic network inference: from co-expression clustering to reverse engineering. Bioinformatics 16, 707-26. (2000).

Discuss pros and cons of such an approach. Major con is that feedback is hard to represent correctly. Major pro is that noise is less of an issue.

8.Huang, S. Genomics, complexity and drug discovery: insights from Boolean network models of cellular regulation. Pharmacogenomics 2, 203-22. (2001).

Argues that Boolean is very adept for genomics.


Biocomputational puzzles

Adaptive Experimental Design along “Borders”

Because combinatorial design explores only a (well spread) subset of possibilities, the apparent effects of factors may depend on other factors that haven’t been explored.

After constructing boolean circuits, software suggests “experiments to clarify border” between inductive and non-inductive, e.g.,

Starvation_Y, Carbon_N, NH4NO3_N, GLU_Y, GLN_Y


Biocomputational puzzles

Steps of Methodology

No Pivot: Small set of well-spaced experiments to find most important influences on a target. Also, a good method in genomics applications to find clusters because of good spacing. Small? 10 inputs with 4 values gives a no pivot of about 30 experiments.

Pivot: Can find out whether an input is likely to have an effect regardless of context (for all X, for all Y) or for every context (for all contexts X)

Half-pivot: For comparison with a fixed background

Border Adaptation: Study differences between repressinve case and non-repressive one to discover fine structure.


Biocomputational puzzles

Inspiration of this approach

Combinatorial design: Inspired by work in software testing by

David Cohen, Siddhartha Dalal, Michael Fredman and

Gardner Patton at Bellcore/Telcordia.

Their problem: how to test a good set of inputs to a

program to discover whether there are any bugs.

Not program coverage, but input coverage.

Not all input combinations, but all combinations of

every pair of of input variables (“no pivot” design).

Hypothesis: every input combination should give

same output: no error.

If true for designed subset, then program is ok.


Biocomputational puzzles

How This Could Help You

Use this approach: Pose an experimental setting of interest to you. (Names of input variables, possible values).

Describe a “no pivot” design for your setting.

Based on that result, describe a pivot design to isolate the exact effect of a specific input.

Get a good sense of whether the pivot is decisive by itself or has a consistent strong influence.

Theoretical Guarantee: For k-factor design, if there is a set of k values that dominates the result, you will find it.


Biocomputational puzzles

Combinatorial Design vs. Random Sampling

Practical Question: Adaptive Combinatorial Design is a sampling method. How well does it work compared to random sampling?

Simulation experiment: Create simulated data with a single important attribute and microarray-quality noise (factor of 2 to 5 change in biological replicates).

Empirical Conclusions: Random and Adaptive Combinatorial Design did equally well at identifying the important attribute, however Random falsely identified other attributes as important about 4 times more often than Adaptive Combinatorial Design. (see cdtables.doc)

Ref: Lejay et al. Systems Bio vol. 1.2 Dec. 2004


Safecracking solution

Safecracking Solution

  • Number S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10

  • 1: A A A A A A A A A A

  • 2: A B B B B B B B B B

  • 3: A C C C C C C C C C

  • 4: B A B C A B C A B C

  • 5: B B C A B C A B C A

  • 6: B C A B C A B C A B

  • 7: C A C B A C B A C B

  • 8: C B A C B A C B A C

  • 9: C C B A C B A C B A

  • 10: X A A A B B B C C C

  • 11: X A A A C C C B B B

  • 12: X B B B A A A C C C

  • 13: X B B B C C C A A A

  • 14: X C C C A A A B B B

  • 15: X C C C B B B A A A


Biocomputational puzzles

Algorithmic (Heuristic) Idea

  • Finding the minimal no pivot design is NP hard, but heuristic solutions work well in practice (within small additive factor):

  • At first, each pair of input variables (n choose 2) is considered to be unfinished.

  • 2. Basic step: choose a random set of disjoint unfinished pairs. Finish them by designing treatments to include all remaining value combinations for each pair, again at random.

  • 3. If an input variable is already finished or not a member of a disjoint pair, put in a don’t care.

  • 4. Fill up earlier don’t cares to complete unfinished pairs.

  • 5. Repeat 2-4 with different random seeds.


Biocomputational puzzles

Example (1)

  • S1: A B C

  • S2: A B

  • S3: A B

  • S4: A B C

  • Choose disjoint unfinished pairs at random

  • { {S1, S3}, {S2, S4}}

  • Generate 6 rows (experiments):

  • S1 S2 S3 S4

  • A B B C

  • B B A B

  • A A A A

  • C A B C

  • C A A B

  • B B B A


Biocomputational puzzles

Example (2)

Not only is { {S1, S3}, {S2, S4}} finished but also:

{S2, S3}. Others are partly finished.

S1 S2 S3 S4

A B B C

B B A B

A A A A

C A B C

C A A B

B B B A


Biocomputational puzzles

Example (3)

Try {S1, S4} next. Fill S2 and S3 with X (don’t care).

S1 S2 S3 S4

A B B C

B B A B

A A A A

C A B C

C A A B

B B B A

A X X B

B X X C

C X X A


Biocomputational puzzles

Example (3)

Now replace X for unfinished pairs: {S1, S2}, {S3, S4}

S1 S2 S3 S4

A B B C

B B A B

A A A A

C A B C

C A A B

B B B A

A X B B

B A A C

C B X A


Biocomputational puzzles

Further Reading: some other uses of combinatorial design

in biology

Universal DNA tag systems: a combinatorial design scheme

Recomb 2000

Amir Ben-Dor, Richard Karp, Benno Schwikowski and Zohar Yakhini.

Experimental design for gene expression microarrays,

Biostatistics, 2:183-201.Kerr and Churchill(2001),

Normal: N microarrays will be used to test N conditions

against a common reference.

Authors propose to use the colors to compare N conditions

against one another in a looping fashion: 1 with 2, 2 with 3, … n with 1.

Result: deconvolves certain effects (e.g. binding affinity of

reference dye.


Sungear multifactor visualization

Sungear Multifactor Visualization

Joint work with Rodrigo Gutiérrez, Manny Katari, Brad Paley, Chris Poultney, and Gloria Coruzzi


Typical genomic questions

Typical Genomic Questions

  • Multiple experiments (multiple time points, multiple conditions), many Go categories, or other features of genes: want to know when certain Go categories are highly represented.

  • Many species, want to know which genes have presence in many species and perhaps which GO categories


Computational desires

Computational Desires

  • Simple, responsive interface

  • Visualize lots of data

  • Many ways to query

  • Many different data representations


Sungear design

Sungear Design

  • Generalizes Venn diagrams to more than three

  • Visual outline is an ellipse having anchors on borders and vessels in the interior.

  • Each vessel points to associated anchors.

  • Linked views to hierarchies, lists, and graphs, so can simultaneously update data depending on user queries (selection events).


Venn diagram great for three factors

Venn Diagram: great for three factors


Sungear principle

Sungear Principle

  • “Sungear is stupid”

  • Doesn’t care which kind of data it is representing, though there is built-in support for genes (because of links to GO and to cytoscape).

  • Basic Sungear representation could be used to describe anything from yachting gear to demographics.


Seed development stages an example

Stage No.

Description(main stage of embryogenesis)

Hours after

flowering

Sample harvested

AtGE No.

1

up to four cells

12 - 24

- (Weigel)

2

early globular to mid globular

24 - 48

-

3

mid globular to early heart

48 - 66

siliques containing seeds

ATGE_76

4

early heart to late heart

66 - 84

siliques containing seeds

ATGE_77

5

late heart to mid torpedo

84 - 90

siliques containing seeds

ATGE_78

6

mid torpedo to late torpedo

90 - 96

isolated seeds

ATGE_79

7

late torpedo to early walking-stick

96 - 108

isolated seeds

ATGE_81

8

walking-stick to early curled cotyledons

108 - 120

isolated seeds

ATGE_82

9

curled cotyledons to early green cotyledons

120 - 144

isolated seeds

ATGE_83

10

green cotyledons

144 - 192

isolated seeds

ATGE_84

Seed Development Stages(an example)


Demos

Demos

  • Growth stages showing when genes are transcribed (N-reg AtGenExpSeedDev)

  • Blast comparison of Arabidopsis against most fully sequenced organisms.

  • Nitrogen, carbon, light, organ showing regulation -- relative expression (cnlo)

  • Interspecies comparisons that might show which kinds of genes are missing in gymnosperms, for example (Vicogenta)


Genes that respond to n in leaves and c in roots form the largest group cnlo

Genes that respond to N in leaves and C in roots form the largest group (cnlo)


Pii and other genes involved in n metabolism are among these 566

PII and other genes involved in N-metabolism are among these 566


Hypothesis most of the regulated genes are involved in metabolism

HYPOTHESIS: Most of the regulated genes are involved in metabolism.


This is not the case for other processes

… this is not the case for other processes


Genes that are regulated by n l together

Genes that are regulated by N & L together


Gene networks of nl responsive genes

Gene networks of NL-responsive genes


Sungear conclusion

Sungear Conclusion

  • If you have lots of data about some common entity (genes, people, goods, whatever) and several factors or experiments whose interaction you want to visualize, Sungear is for you.

  • Available late summer 2005. (sungear2/run.bat)


Overall conclusion

Overall Conclusion

  • Combinatorial design if you have a large search space to analyze and you want an intelligent sampling method.

  • Sungear for visualizing experimental data.


Other projects

Other Projects

  • Diabetes treatment (Harvard med school): given patient histories and interventions, try to find best practice interventions.

  • Time series work: fusing data from different sources, detecting bursts over many window lengths, query by humming

  • Graph search and matching: given a query graph find matching subgraphs.


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