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Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1 The President and Vice President Section 2 The President’s Job Section 3 Making Foreign Policy Section 4 Presidential Advisers and Executive Agencies Review to Learn Chapter Assessment. Contents.

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Splash screen

Splash Screen


Contents

Chapter Introduction

Section 1The President andVice President

Section 2The President’s Job

Section 3Making Foreign Policy

Section 4Presidential Advisers and Executive Agencies

Review to Learn

Chapter Assessment

Contents

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.


Chapter intro 1

Chapter Overview

Chapter Intro 1

In Chapter 7 you examine the executive branch. Section 1 covers presidential elections, requirements for office, and rules of succession. Section 2 identifies powers and roles of the president. Section3 discusses U.S. foreign policy goals and the president’s role in achieving them. Section 4 focuses on the federal bureaucracy.


Chapter intro 2

Chapter Objectives

Chapter Intro 2

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Explain the constitutional provision for the presidency.

  • Examine the duties of the president.

  • Describe the relationship between the presidency and foreign policy.

  • Describe the federal bureaucracy.

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Chapter intro 3

Chapter Intro 3

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End of intro

End of Intro

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Section 1 1

Guide to Reading

Main Idea

Section 1-1

Every four years, electors selected by popular vote cast their ballots for president and vice president, whose terms of office are established in the United States Constitution.

Key Terms

  • Electoral College

  • elector

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Section 1 2

Guide to Reading (cont.)

Reading Strategy

Section 1-2

Categorizing Information As you read, categorize information by completing a chart like the one on page 166 of your textbook with information about the U.S. presidency.

Read to Learn

  • What qualifications are needed to be president?

  • How are presidents elected?

  • What are the rules of presidential succession?

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Section 1 3

President Truman

Section 1-3

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Section 1 4

Qualifications for President

Section 1-4

  • The president heads the executive branch–the top political job in the country and possibly the world.

  • George Washington was the first to hold the office.

  • To become president, a person must be: (1) at least 35, (2) a native-born American citizen, and (3) a resident of the United States for at least 14 years.

(pages 166–167)

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Section 1 5

Qualifications for President (cont.)

Section 1-5

  • So far, every U.S. president has been a white male.

  • All but one has been Protestant Christian.

  • Most have had a college education.

  • Many were lawyers.

  • Most came from states with large populations.

(pages 166–167)

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Section 1 6

Qualifications for President (cont.)

Section 1-6

  • Things are changing.

  • In recent decades, we’ve had a Catholic president (John F. Kennedy), a female vice-presidential candidate (Geraldine Ferraro), an African American contender for the Democratic nomination for president (Jesse Jackson), and a Jewish candidate for vice president (Joseph Lieberman).

(pages 166–167)

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Section 1 7

Qualifications for President (cont.)

Section 1-7

The president of the United States is generally considered to hold the most important job in the world. Why?

The job of U.S. president is generally considered the most important in the world because of the power and global influence of the United States.

(pages 166–167)

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Section 1 8

Electing a President

Section 1-8

  • Presidential elections take place every four years in years evenly divisible by 4.

  • The Constitution set up an indirect method of election called the Electoral College.

  • By marking their ballots for a particular candidate, voters are actually selecting their state’s electors.

  • The electors are pledged to vote for the chosen candidate.

(page 167)

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Section 1 9

Electing a President (cont.)

Section 1-9

  • Each state has as many electoral votes as the total of its members in Congress.

  • This means that states with larger populations have more electoral votes.

  • In almost all states, the winning candidate receives all the electoral votes, even if the person wins by only a small majority.

  • As a result, candidates focus their campaign on states with the most electoral votes.

  • It takes 270 of the 538 electoral votes to win.

(page 167)

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Section 1 10

Electing a President (cont.)

Section 1-10

  • The media announces the winner the evening of the election.

  • However, the outcome is not official until the Electoral College casts ballots and Congress counts them.

(page 167)

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Section 1 11

Electing a President (cont.)

Section 1-11

Your ballot for president will show the names of all the candidates. When you select one, are you voting directly for that person? Explain.

No. When you vote for a candidate, you are actually voting for a list of presidential electors pledged to that candidate.

(page 167)

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Section 1 12

Term of Office

Section 1-12

  • Presidents serve four-year terms.

  • The Twenty-second Amendment limits each president to two elected terms, or a maximum of 10 years if the president took office during another president’s term.

(pages 167–168)

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Section 1 13

Term of Office (cont.)

Section 1-13

  • The president receives a yearly salary of $400,000, plus expenses.

  • The president lives and works at the White House.

  • A staff tends to the needs of the president’s family.

(pages 167–168)

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Section 1 14

Term of Office (cont.)

Section 1-14

  • Camp David, a beautiful estate in Maryland, serves as the president’s retreat and a place to host foreign leaders.

  • Presidents travel in special cars, helicopters, and airplanes, such as Air Force One.

(pages 167–168)

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Section 1 15

Term of Office (cont.)

Section 1-15

Before the Twenty-second Amendment, did most presidents serve more than two terms? Explain.

No. Originally the Constitution placed no limits on how many terms a president could serve. George Washington, however, chose to serve only two terms. All other presidents except one followed Washington’s example.

(pages 167–168)

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Section 1 16

The Vice President

Section 1-16

  • The vice president is elected with the president, and the qualifications are the same for both jobs.

  • The vice president votes in the Senate in case of a tie, but otherwise has little authority.

  • Yet if the president dies, is removed from office, becomes seriously ill, or resigns, the vice president becomes president.

(page 168)

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Section 1 17

The Vice President (cont.)

Section 1-17

A vice president’s activities rarely make headlines. Under what circumstances would a vice president suddenly become the focus of attention?

The rarely visible vice president would suddenly become the focus of attention if the president became ill, died, or left office. The vice president would then become president.

(page 168)

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Section 1 18

Presidential Succession

Section 1-18

  • The Constitution was not clear about whether the vice president would become president or just take over the president’s duties if the president could no longer serve.

  • Vice President John Tyler settled the question.

  • He took the oath as president when William Henry Harrison died in office.

(pages 168–169)

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Section 1 19

Presidential Succession (cont.)

Section 1-19

  • The Presidential Succession Act of 1947 established the line of succession.

  • If both the president and vice president die or leave office, the Speaker of the House would be next, followed by the president pro tempore, and then the secretary of state.

(pages 168–169)

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Section 1 20

Presidential Succession (cont.)

Section 1-20

  • Later the Twenty-fifth Amendment further established that the vice president, after becoming president, would choose another vice president.

  • Both houses of Congress must approve the choice.

(pages 168–169)

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Section 1 21

Presidential Succession (cont.)

Section 1-21

  • The amendment gives the vice president a role in determining whether a president is disabled and unable to do the job.

  • The vice president would then act as president until the president is able to go back to work.

(pages 168–169)

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Section 1 22

Presidential Succession (cont.)

Section 1-22

If both the president and vice president die or leave office, who would be the next three people in the order of presidential succession?

The next three would be the Speaker of the House, followed by the president pro tempore of the Senate, and then the secretary of state.

(pages 168–169)

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Section 1 23

Checking for Understanding

Section 1-23

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

A

__ 1.a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president

__ 2.people appointed to vote in presidential elections for the major candidates

A.Electoral College

B.electors

B

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Section 1 24

Checking for Understanding(cont.)

Section 1-24

Describe What three qualifications for the U.S. presidency are listed in the Constitution of the United States?

A person must be 35 years of age, be a native-born U.S. citizen, and a U.S. resident for 14 years.

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Section 1 25

Checking for Understanding(cont.)

Section 1-25

Identify What are the constitutional duties of the vice president of the United States?

The vice president presides over the Senate and votes in the Senate in case of a tie.

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Section 1 26

Critical Thinking

Section 1-26

Making Inferences What did John Adams mean by saying, “I may become everything”?

The vice president may become president.

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Section 1 27

Analyzing Visuals

Section 1-27

Identify Examine the chart–Presidential Succession–on page 168 of your textbook. Who is fifth in line to become president of the United States?

The secretary of the treasury is fifth in line to become president.

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Section 1 28

Close

Section 1-28

Do you think voters are given enough say in the choice of vice president?


End of section 1

End of Section 1

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Section 2 1

Guide to Reading

Main Idea

Section 2-1

In addition to the powers of the office described in the Constitution, the president fills other roles that are important to the functioning of the United States government.

Key Terms

  • executive order

  • pardon

  • reprieve

  • amnesty

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Section 2 2

Guide to Reading (cont.)

Reading Strategy

Section 2-2

Summarizing InformationAs you read, in a graphic organizer like the one on page 171 of your textbook, list the powers of the president and give an example of each.

Read to Learn

  • What are the powers assigned to the president by the Constitution?

  • What are the various roles filled by the president?

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Section 2 3

President Warren Harding shakes hands with Babe Ruth.

Section 2-3

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Section 2 4

Constitutional Powers

Section 2-4

  • The president’s main job is to carry out the laws passed by Congress.

  • The Constitution gives the president power to veto, call Congress into special session, serve as commander in chief, and receive foreign officials.

  • The president can make treaties, appoint judges and top government officials, and pardon convicted criminals.

(pages 171–172)

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Section 2 5

Constitutional Powers (cont.)

Section 2-5

  • In the State of the Union address each year, the president informs Congress of important issues facing the nation and proposes new legislative programs.

(pages 171–172)


Section 2 6

Constitutional Powers (cont.)

Section 2-6

Why does the president give several speeches to Congress each year, including the State of the Union address?

The Constitution requires the president to give Congress information about the “state of the union.” These speeches fulfill that obligation.

(pages 171–172)

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Section 2 7

Roles of the President

Section 2-7

  • As chief executive, the president is in charge of 15 cabinet departments and more than 3 million government workers.

  • The president appoints the heads of cabinet departments and large agencies, with Senate approval.

  • The president may not make laws but can issue executive orders–rules or commands that have the force of law.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 8

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-8

  • The president can appoint federal judges, including Supreme Court justices.

  • This power is important because the way the Supreme Court interprets laws greatly affects life in the United States.

  • Most presidents appoint justices who share views similar to their own.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 9

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-9

  • The president may grant pardons, or declarations of forgiveness and freedom from punishment.

  • The president may issue a reprieve, an order to delay a person’s punishment until a higher court can hear the case.

  • The president may also grant amnesty, a pardon toward a group of people.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 10

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-10

  • The president directs foreign policy, deciding how the United States will act toward other countries.

  • As commander in chief, the president is in charge of all branches of the armed forces.

  • Congress and the president share the power to make war.

  • Only Congress can declare war, but only the president can order soldiers into battle.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 11

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-11

  • Congress has declared war only five times, yet presidents have sent troops into action more than 150 times.

  • This situation may threaten the system of checks and balances.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 12

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-12

  • After the undeclared Vietnam War, Congress passed the War Powers Act.

  • This law requires the president to notify Congress immediately when troops are sent into battle.

  • The troops must be brought home after 60 days unless Congress approves a longer stay or declares war.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 13

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-13

  • Only Congress may introduce bills, but the executive branch proposes most legislation.

  • All presidents have a legislative program that they want Congress to pass.

  • They make speeches and talk to key members of Congress to build support for their programs.

  • The president’s staff works on the laws with members of Congress.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 14

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-14

  • The president and Congress often disagree.

  • One reason is that the president represents the whole nation.

  • Congress members represent only their state or district.

  • Another reason is that the president can serve only two terms.

  • Many Congress members win reelection many times and remain in office for decades.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 15

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-15

  • As a result, the president often wants to move faster on programs than members of Congress do.

(pages 172–174)


Section 2 16

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-16

  • As head of state, the president hosts visiting foreign leaders and carries out ceremonial functions, such as giving medals to the country’s heroes.

  • As the country’s economic leader, the president must plan the federal budget and try to deal with such problems as unemployment, rising prices, and high taxes.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 17

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-17

  • The president is the leader of his or her political party.

  • The party helps the president get elected.

  • In return, the president gives speeches to raise money and help fellow party members win office.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 18

Roles of the President (cont.)

Section 2-18

Why is the power to appoint Supreme Court justices important to the president?

The Supreme Court has the final authority to determine whether a law is acceptable under the Constitution. This power to interpret laws greatly influences life in the United States. As a result, presidents usually appoint justices who share views similar to their own.

(pages 172–174)

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Section 2 19

Checking for Understanding

Section 2-19

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

D

__ 1.a pardon toward a group of people

__ 2.a rule or command that has the force of law

__ 3.an order to delay a person’s punishment until a higher court can hear the case

__ 4.a declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment

A.executive order

B.pardon

C.reprieve

D.amnesty

A

C

B

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Section 2 20

Checking for Understanding(cont.)

Section 2-20

Identify What duties does the president carry out as commander in chief?

The president is the leader of the military, must notify Congress when troops are sent into battle, and must order troops home within 60 days unless Congress approves a longer stay or declares war.

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Section 2 21

Checking for Understanding(cont.)

Section 2-21

Describe What power does the president have that carries the force of law and assists the president in enforcing laws passed by Congress?

The president has the power to issue executive orders.

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Section 2 22

Critical Thinking

Section 2-22

Drawing Conclusions Which of the roles of the president do you think is the most important? Least important? Why?

Possible answer: Commander in chief is most important or party leader is least important.

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Section 2 23

Analyzing Visuals

Section 2-23

Identify Review the chart on page 172 of your textbook. Under which role of the president does a new education bill fall? Tax reform?

The proposal of a new education bill falls under the president’s role as legislative leader. Tax reform falls under the president’s role as economic leader.

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Section 2 24

Close

Section 2-24

Read the introductory paragraph to a newspaper or magazine story about the current president. Name the role the president is called upon to perform in the article. Give reasons for your answer.


End of section 2

End of Section 2

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Section 3 1

Guide to Reading

Main Idea

Section 3-1

In attempting to achieve the nation’s foreign policy goals, both the president and Congress have important roles to play.

Key Terms

  • foreign policy

  • ambassador

  • trade sanction

  • embargo

  • national security

  • treaty

  • executive agreement

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Section 3 2

Guide to Reading (cont.)

Reading Strategy

Section 3-2

Comparing and Contrasting As you read, complete a chart like the one on page 175 of your textbook to compare the role of Congress in foreign policy to that of the president.

Read to Learn

  • What are the goals of U.S. foreign policy?

  • What are the roles of Congress and the president in conducting foreign policy?

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Section 3 3

Protecting American interests abroad

Section 3-3

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Section 3 4

The President and Foreign Policy

Section 3-4

  • Foreign policy is a nation’s overall plan for dealing with other nations.

  • The basic goal of American foreign policy is national security, the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm.

  • International trade is another goal and is vital to economic prosperity.

  • Trade can create markets for American products and jobs for American workers.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 5

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-5

  • A third goal is promoting world peace.

  • Even distant wars can disrupt trade and endanger U.S. national security.

  • A fourth goal is to promote democracy and human rights around the world.

  • The executive branch includes a large foreign-policy bureaucracy.

  • It includes the State Department, Defense Department, Central Intelligence Agency, and National Security Council.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 6

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-6

  • The president and Congress share the power to conduct foreign affairs.

  • The president is the chief diplomat and commander in chief, but Congress has the power to declare war, prohibit certain military actions, and spend–or withhold–money for defense.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 7

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-7

  • The Constitution does not make clear how the executive and legislative branches can use their powers.

  • As a result, the branches compete for control of foreign policy.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 8

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-8

  • Treaties are formal agreements between the governments of two or more countries.

  • Some, such as NATO, are agreements among nations for mutual defense.

  • The Senate must approve a treaty by a two-thirds vote.

  • However, the president can make an executive agreement with the leader of another country without Senate approval.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 9

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-9

  • An ambassador is an official representative of a country’s government.

  • The president appoints ambassadors, with Senate approval.

  • Ambassadors are sent only to countries where the United States accepts the government as legally in power.

  • The United States gives foreign aid in the form of money, food, military assistance, or other supplies to help other countries.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 10

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-10

  • The president makes agreements with other nations about what products may be traded and the rules of trade.

  • Sometimes the rules include trade sanctions, or efforts to punish another country by imposing trade barriers.

  • Another punishing tool is the embargo–an agreement among a group of nations that prohibits them all from trading with the target nation.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 11

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-11

  • Congress takes the lead in imposing tariffs on imported goods and in joining international trade groups.

  • One such trade group is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 12

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-12

  • As commander in chief, presidents may use the military to carry out some foreign-policy decisions that could involve deploying armed forces or launching missile attacks.

  • This powerful tool must be used with care.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 13

The President and Foreign Policy (cont.)

Section 3-13

What are four main goals of American foreign policy?

Four main goals are to protect national security and to promote international trade, world peace, and democracy.

(pages 175–178)

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Section 3 14

Checking for Understanding

Section 3-14

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

C

__ 1.a formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries

__ 2.an effort to punish another nation by imposing trade barriers

__ 3.the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm

__ 4.an official representative of a country’s government

__ 5.a nation’s overall plan for dealing with other nations

A.foreign policy

B.national security

C.treaty

D.ambassador

E.trade sanction

E

B

D

A

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Section 3 15

Checking for Understanding(cont.)

Section 3-15

Describe In what way can trade sanctions and embargoes be used in conducting foreign policy?

They can be used to punish other nations.

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Section 3 16

Checking for Understanding(cont.)

Section 3-16

Define What is NATO and how does it fit into United States foreign policy? What is NAFTA and how does it fit into U.S. foreign policy?

NATO is a mutual defense pact among countries. NAFTA is an international trade group. Both can be used against a nonmember country.

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Section 3 17

Critical Thinking

Section 3-17

Making Judgments Should Congress or the president have more power in conducting foreign affairs? Explain your answer.

Answers will vary.

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Section 3 18

Analyzing Visuals

Section 3-18

Infer Review the photograph of the United States embassy in Iran on page 178 of your textbook. What sort of impression do you think this building gives to people in Iran?

Answers will vary.

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Section 3 19

Close

Section 3-19

What foreign policy issues do presidents face?


End of section 3

End of Section 3

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Section 4 1

Guide to Reading

Main Idea

Section 4-1

Thousands of employees and advisers help the president.

Key Terms

  • cabinet

  • civil service worker

  • civil service system

  • spoils system

  • merit system

  • federal bureaucracy

  • independent agency

  • government corporation

  • political appointee

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Section 4 2

Guide to Reading (cont.)

Reading Strategy

Section 4-2

Categorizing Information As you read, complete a chart similar to the one on page 179 of your textbook to categorize functions of the president’s executive office.

Read to Learn

  • How does the EOP help presidents perform their duties?

  • What are the duties of the federal bureaucracy?

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Section 4 3

Director Michael Chertoff

Section 4-3

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Section 4 4

Executive Office of the President

Section 4-4

  • The employees of the Executive Office of the President (EOP) help the president by preparing reports, helping to write bills, and checking the work of various agencies.

  • The people of the White House Office work directly for the president.

  • About 10 to 12 of these 500 people are the president’s closest advisers.

  • They make up the White House staff.

  • The most powerful is the chief of staff.

(pages 179–181)

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Section 4 5

Executive Office of the President (cont.)

Section 4-5

  • The White House staff screens the flow of information and people to the president.

  • As a result, this group has a lot of power.

  • The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) prepares the federal budget and monitors government spending.

  • The federal budget lays out the administration’s plans and goals for the coming year.

(pages 179–181)

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Section 4 6

Executive Office of the President (cont.)

Section 4-6

  • The National Security Council helps the president coordinate the military and foreign policy.

  • It includes the vice president, the secretaries of state and defense, and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a group made up of the top commander of each of the armed services.

  • The national security adviser is the head of the NSC staff.

(pages 179–181)

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Section 4 7

Executive Office of the President (cont.)

Section 4-7

  • The NSC supervises the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

  • The Office of Administration provides administration services to all of the executive offices of the president.

(pages 179–181)

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Section 4 8

Executive Office of the President (cont.)

Section 4-8

  • The three members of the Council of Economic Advisers advise the president about complex economic matters, such as employment, tax policy, inflation, and trade.

(pages 179–181)


Section 4 9

Executive Office of the President (cont.)

Section 4-9

Why does the White House staff have a lot of political power?

The White House staff largely decides who and what gets through to the president. This function gives the group a lot of political power. Lawmakers and others know that to influence, or even speak with, the president, they must go through the White House staff.

(pages 179–181)

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Section 4 10

Cabinet

Section 4-10

  • The cabinet is a group of advisers that includes the heads of the 15 top-level executive departments.

  • The head of the Department of Justice is called the attorney general.

  • The other department heads are called secretaries.

(page 181–182)

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Section 4 11

Cabinet (cont.)

Section 4-11

  • In 2002, President George W. Bush created the Department of Homeland Security to deal with terrorist activities.

  • Cabinet members advise the president on issues related to their departments.

  • The president decides when the cabinet meets and how much to rely on their advice.

(page 181–182)

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Section 4 12

Cabinet (cont.)

Section 4-12

How did the cabinet develop?

No mention of the cabinet appears in the Constitution. Instead, this body developed over the years through custom and usage. It started when George Washington began meeting regularly with department heads.

(page 181–182)

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Section 4 13

The Vice President and the First Lady

Section 4-13

  • Most presidents have delegated little authority to their vice presidents, though this is changing somewhat.

  • Modern vice presidents have served on special advisory boards.

  • They often visit foreign countries as representatives of the president.

(page 182)

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Section 4 14

The Vice President and the First Lady (cont.)

Section 4-14

  • The Constitution does not mention the president’s spouse.

  • Many First Ladies, though, have served the country in useful ways.

  • Today First Ladies have an office and staff in the White House.

(page 182)

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Section 4 15

The Vice President and the First Lady (cont.)

Section 4-15

How has the role of the vice president changed in recent administrations?

Recent presidents have tried to give their vice presidents more responsibility. Al Gore served as a close adviser to Bill Clinton on environmental issues. Dick Cheney has advised George W. Bush closely on foreign policy issues.

(page 182)

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Section 4 16

The Federal Bureaucracy

Section 4-16

  • Directly below the president are the cabinet secretaries and their departments.

  • At the next level are hundreds of agencies.

  • Together, the agencies and employees of the executive branch are known as the federal bureaucracy.

  • The workers are called bureaucrats, or civil servants.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 17

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-17

  • These departments and agencies carry out government programs by performing three basic jobs:

  • (1) They develop procedures for putting new laws into practice.

  • (2) They administer day-to-day operations of the government.

  • (3) They regulate, or police, various activities.

  • In doing these jobs they help shape government policy.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 18

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-18

  • Independent agencies are not part of the cabinet, but they are not independent of the president.

  • The three types are: executive agencies, regulatory commissions, and government corporations.

  • Executive agencies deal with certain specialized areas.

  • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is one example.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 19

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-19

  • Government corporations are like private businesses, except that the government owns and runs them.

  • Like businesses, they charge for their services, but they are not supposed to make a profit.

  • The United States Postal Service is a government corporation.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 20

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-20

  • Unlike other independent agencies, regulatory commissions do not report to the president.

  • The president appoints members, but only Congress can remove them through impeachment.

  • Regulatory commissions protect the public by making and enforcing rules for certain industries.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 21

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-21

  • Top department jobs generally go to political appointees–people whom the president has chosen because they have ability or were supporters of the president’s election campaign.

  • Their employment usually ends when the president leaves office.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 22

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-22

  • About 90 percent of national government employees are civil service workers.

  • Unlike appointees, they usually have permanent employment.

  • The civil service system hires government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 23

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-23

  • Before 1883 government jobs went to people as a reward for their political support.

  • Abuses of this spoils system led Congress to pass the Pendleton Act, also known as the Civil Service Reform Act of 1883.

  • This law limited the number of jobs the president could give to friends and backers.

  • It also created the civil service system.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 24

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-24

  • The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) directs the civil service system.

  • It sets job standards and gives written tests to job seekers.

  • The civil service system is a merit system.

  • Government officials hire new workers from lists of people who have passed the test or otherwise met civil service standards.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 25

The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)

Section 4-25

What kind of agency is the Federal Communications Commission and what does it do?

The FCC is a regulatory commission, a kind of independent agency. It makes broadcasting rules for the nation’s television and radio stations.

(pages 182–185)

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Section 4 26

Checking for Understanding

Section 4-26

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

C

__ 1.a business owned and operated by the federal government

__ 2.the collective agencies and employees of the executive branch

__ 3.federal board or commission that is not part of any cabinet department

__ 4.a person appointed to a federal position by the president

A.federal bureaucracy

B.independent agency

C.government corporation

D.political appointee

A

B

D

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Section 4 27

Checking for Understanding(cont.)

Section 4-27

Describe What does the Constitution say about the role of the First Lady in our government?

The Constitution does not mention the spouse of the president.

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Section 4 28

Checking for Understanding(cont.)

Section 4-28

Contrast What is the difference between a private and a government corporation?

The government, rather than an individual, owns and operates a government corporation.

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Section 4 29

Critical Thinking

Section 4-29

Making Inferences What part of the EOP do you think is the most important? Why?

Possible answer: The White House Office is the most powerful because it controls access to the president.

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Section 4 30

Analyzing Visuals

Section 4-30

Infer Review the cabinet departments of the executive branch on page 183 of your textbook. Why are there so many cabinet departments under the president of the United States?

Possible answer: There are many cabinet departments because the government has many responsibilities.

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Section 4 31

Close

Section 4-31

How can a chief of staff help or hinder the president in carrying out his or her job?


End of section 4

End of Section 4

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Review 1

Section 1: The President and Vice President

Review 1

  • There are constitutional and informal requirements for the U.S. presidency.

  • Presidents are elected through an indirect method called the Electoral College.

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Review 2

Section 2: The President’s Job

Review 2

  • According to the Constitution, the president’s main job is to carry out the laws passed by Congress.


Review 3

Section 3: Making Foreign Policy

Review 3

  • The basic goal of American foreign policy is national defense.


Review 4

Section 4: Presidential Advisers and Executive Agencies

Review 4

  • The EOP is the president’s administration.


End of review

End of Review

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Chapter assessment 1

Reviewing Key Terms

Chapter Assessment 1

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

F

__ 1.a rule issued by the president that has the force of law

__ 2.people chosen by the president to fill a certain post because they were important supporters of the president’s election campaign

__ 3.a pardon toward a group of people

__ 4.secretaries of the executive departments, the vice president, and other top officials who help the president make decisions and policy

A.amnesty

B. cabinet

C.civil service system

D.electors

E.embargo

F.executive order

G.foreign policy

H.government corporation

I.political appointees

J.spoils system

I

A

B

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Chapter assessment 2

Reviewing Key Terms (cont.)

Chapter Assessment 2

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

D

__ 5.members of a party chosen in each state to formally elect the president and vice president

__ 6.a government’s plan for dealing with other nations

__ 7.the practice of victorious politicians rewarding their followers with government jobs

A.amnesty

B. cabinet

C.civil service system

D.electors

E.embargo

F.executive order

G.foreign policy

H.government corporation

I.political appointees

J.spoils system

G

J

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Chapter assessment 3

Reviewing Key Terms (cont.)

Chapter Assessment 3

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

E

__ 8.an agreement prohibiting trade

__ 9.a business owned and operated by the government to provide services to the public

__ 10.the practice of government employment based upon competitive examination and merit

A.amnesty

B. cabinet

C.civil service system

D.electors

E.embargo

F.executive order

G.foreign policy

H.government corporation

I.political appointees

J.spoils system

H

C

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Chapter assessment 4

Reviewing Main Ideas

Chapter Assessment 4

How is the number of each state’s electoral votes determined?

The number is equal to its total representatives and senators.

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Chapter assessment 5

Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.)

Chapter Assessment 5

To whom does the Constitution give the power to officially declare war?

Congress has the power to officially declare war.

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Chapter assessment 6

Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.)

Chapter Assessment 6

What president created the EOP?

Franklin D. Roosevelt created the EOP.

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Chapter assessment 7

Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.)

Chapter Assessment 7

What agency has the most responsibility for preparing the federal budget?

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has the most responsibility for preparing the federal budget.

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Chapter assessment 8

Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.)

Chapter Assessment 8

How are directors of independent agencies appointed?

The president appoints directors of independent agencies.

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Chapter assessment 9

Critical Thinking

Chapter Assessment 9

Analyzing Information Why do you think an EOP was not needed prior to 1939? How did previous presidents manage without this office?

Possible answer: The president’s duties and responsibilities have increased and so require a highly-organized staff to manage the workload.

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Chapter assessment 10

Analyzing Visuals

Chapter Assessment 10

Study the political cartoon on page 174 of your textbook and answer the following question.

This cartoon shows President Roosevelt acting as president. Which roles of the presidency is he filling in the cartoon? Explain your choices.

He is filling the role of economic leader.

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Chapter assessment 11

Chapter Assessment 11

Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question.

Which of the following statements is a description of the winner-take-all system of electing the president of the United States?

AAmerican citizens elect the president directly through popular vote.

BIf a candidate wins the popular vote, that candidate usually gets all of the state’s electoral votes.

C The electoral votes a candidate receives are proportional to the popular votes that candidate received.

D Large states have more electoral votes than small states.

Test-Taking TipBefore reviewing the answer choices, jot down an answer to the question in your own words.

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Chapter assessment 12

Chapter Assessment 12

How are the jobs of secretary of state and national security adviser similar?

Both advise the president about foreign policy.

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End of assessment

End of Assessment

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M c contents

M&C Contents

Charts

Presidential Succession

Powers and Duties of the President

The Executive Office of the President (EOP)

Cabinet Departments

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M c 1

M&C 1


M c 2

M&C 2


M c 3

M&C 3


M c 4

M&C 4


Skillbuilder 1

Reading an Election Map

Skillbuilder 1

Why Learn This Skill?

Knowing how to read and understand an election map helps you understand an election clearly. It can also help you understand past elections.

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Skillbuilder 2

Reading an Election Map

Skillbuilder 2

Learning the Skill

To read an election map, follow these steps:

  • Check the year of the election, most likely noted in the title or the key.

  • Study the key. See how the different candidates are represented on the map.

  • Note the number of electoral votes each state has. Remember that each state’s total number of senators and representatives determines its electoral votes. Its popular vote count is the number of actual voters.

  • Study the entire map. Determine voting patterns and trends.

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Skillbuilder 3

Reading an Election Map

Skillbuilder 3

Practicing the Skill

Answer the following questions about the map below.


Skillbuilder 4

Reading an Election Map

Skillbuilder 4

1.How many electoral votes did the state of California have? The state of Texas?

California had 54 electoral votes and Texas had 32 electoral votes.

2.Which candidate won the election? How many total electoral votes did he win?

George W. Bush won the election with 271 total electoral votes.

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Skillbuilder 5

Reading an Election Map

Skillbuilder 5

3.Which candidate won the popular vote?

Al Gore won the popular vote.

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DYK1

Virginia representative Edmund Randolph proposed that three people head the executive branch instead of one. He argued that three executives would avoid the dangers of monarchy and could better represent different regions of the country.


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DYK3

President Ronald Reagan earned the nickname “Chief of the One-Liners” because he made everything, including foreign policy, the butt of a joke. For example, he criticized the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) of 1979 by saying “Too much salt isn’t good for you.”


Time1

Time1

What does the rabbit symbolize in this cartoon? What comment is the cartoonist making about the impact of government spending?

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Time2

Time2

The rabbit symbolizes spending by the federal government. The cartoonist suggests that government spending is a reliable way for politicians to gain popularity and support from voters.


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DFT1

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Splash screen

DFT2

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DFT3

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DFT4

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