Global Marketing Management Culture & Management Style. MKTG 3231 Fall 2014 Mrs. Tamara L. Cohen. Class # 4. Case #1: Skewed Sex Ratio in India due Sept.15 HARD COPY of write-up due at beginning of class (no folders please) Requirements for each Partnership Case Write-up:
Mrs. Tamara L. Cohen
Class # 4
Case #1: Skewed Sex Ratio in Indiadue Sept.15
HARD COPY of write-up due at beginningof class (no folders please)
Requirements for each Partnership Case Write-up:
4 - 6 pages, typed and double-spaced
Exhibits / Appendices / Resources in addition to 4-6 pages
You and your partner should submit one write-up together.
Use the article (in the Course Pack), PLUS use other sources that you will find yourselves.
Your Case Write-up must include:
Executive Summary (1 paragraph on 1st page)
Background (brief summary of case as you see it)
Problems (be incisive & comprehensive)
Courses of Action (address every problem identified)
Recommendations (most important problem(s) & its/their solutions)
Conclusions (short & sweet)
Exhibits / Appendices / Resources e.g. web sites, books, charts. Remember to acknowledge all sources, including the case study itself.
Use headings. Pay attention to weighting of each section.
asuccess in international market arena
= set of values, beliefs, rules, & institutions held by a specific group of people
People are at center of all business activity.
People bring different backgrounds, assumptions, expectations, ways of communicating. This is CULTURE.
Culture, including all its elements, profoundly affects management style & overall business systems.
Belief that one’s own ethnic group or culture is superior to that of others
“Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster."
Individualism versus Collectivism
Indulgence versus Restraint
Achievement versus Nurturing
= degree to which individuals are integrated into groups
= extent to which less powerful members of society/institutions accept & expect unequal distribution of power
= society’s tolerance for uncertainty & ambiguity
= Masculinity (achievement) versus Femininity (nurturing)
= society’s time perspective
Low LTO (= high SHORT-term orientation)
= freedom to express gratification
= society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun
= society that suppresses gratification of needs, and regulates it by means of strict social norms
Individualism versus Collectivism
Cultural ImperativesEssential friendship or trusting relationship must be established before business can begin: “GUANXI”關係or关系, denotes relationships in the Chinese business world that may be leveraged regularly and voluntarily; critical to successful business endeavors; Japanese NINGEN KANKEI; Latin American COMPADRE.
Cultural ElectivesBehaviors that can be conformed to, but are not absolutely required. e.g. gifts; understand importance of banquets in China; appreciate importance of Karaoke evenings in China; greeting, eating, drinking, Japanese bowing, Arab coffee, Czech aperitif, Chinese drinking at banquets
Cultural ExclusivesForeigner must NEVER participate in these customs. customs only for locals, aliens barred, apologize if err, never joke about or criticize local customs. e.g. Paul Midler’s referring to China as home; non-Muslims never participate in Muslim prayer rituals
“What importers needed to know before they moved their business to China was whether the economy was safe. One important contributing factor was a changing perception of China as a low-risk environment.”
“Manufacturers that engaged in the manipulation of quality knew that if they were caught, there was an inclination to ‘work things out’”
“…the entire process of solving problems in China (is) itself an enigma”
Americans are accustomed to getting exactly what they order.
In Chinese manufacturing, the customer’s exact wishes matter only as far as necessary to capture the initial order.
Cultural origins of counterfeiting - good copies are admired
No industrial revolution in China
“It’s not the gift that counts
but how you present it.”
Gift protocols have prevailed in Japan for centuries:
■ types of gifts to give, ■ wrapping, ■ presentation
Gift giving in China was once a high art form. Communist regime outlawed gift-giving to officials. Now communism is relaxing and gifts are expected.
Exchanging gifts is an important part of Chinese culture because it is one way of building guanxi.
Proper etiquette to refuse offer of a gift, even more than once. Giver is expected to persist. Acceptance will follow. No matter its value, the gift is referred to as “a small token”
Give and receive gifts with both hands
Avoid expensive gifts. Quality pen is good.
No white, blue, black gifts, no red ink.
No sharp objects; no handkerchiefs
No flowers (only for funerals)
Symbolism of numbers 2a 8a 6a 4 x
Gift giving is an elevated custom in personal & business relationships.
Tenets: good manners are essential ingredient in person’s character, and generosity to guests is essential to good reputation
Do not give gift when 1st meet someone (interpreted as bribe)
Present gift in front of others (interpreted as bribe if one-on-one)
Give & receive with right hand or both hands
Reciprocate in kind
No alcohol, no pigskin
No gifts to wife of colleague
Avoid red roses (suggest romance), white flowers, number 13
Never wrap flowers in paper; present flowers unwrapped
Yellow flowers signal grieving in Eastern Europe.
Avoid chrysanthemums in Italy, France, Belgium, Spain (only for coffins or graves)
Carnations are only used for funerals in Sweden, Poland & Germany
Even numbers of flowers can be bad luck in Germany & Austria
Avoid bringing vodka.
Bring a bouquet of flowers, but there must be an odd number of flowers. (Even numbers for funerals).
From earliest childhood, Russian boys are taught the importance of giving flowers.
Bring gifts for kids.
Host/business associate may find it difficult to reciprocate.
Strong tradition of enthusiastic giving & receiving gifts.
Spontaneity fuels Russian gift-giving (rather than strict social protocols).
Great honor to be invited to a Russian business associate’s home. It is also a burden for the host. Russian tradition demands that you be served a meal that far exceeds everyone’s appetite, & often the financial capabilities of the host, e.g. caviar served with large spoons.Russia
What do we know about Culture & Management Style?
Next class: Global Political Environment
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