Alderfer’s ERG theory. Motivation. Motivation strength. Argyris’ maturity-immaturity continuum. Needs-goal theory. Behavior modification. Negative reinforcement. Content theories of motivation. Physiological needs. Equity theory of motivation. Porter-Lawler theory. Esteem needs.
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Argyris’ maturity-immaturity continuum
Content theories of motivation
Equity theory of motivation
Process theories of motivation
Hygiene, or maintenance, factors
Security, or safety, needs
McClelland’s acquired needs theory
Vroom expectancy theory
Motivating factors, or motivators
Alderfer’s ERG theory is an explanation of human needs that divides them into three basic types: existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs.
Argyris’ maturity-immaturity continuum is a concept that furnishes insights into human needs by focusing on an individual’s natural progress from immaturity to maturity.
Behavior modification is a program that focuses on managing human activity by controlling the consequences of performing that activity.
Content theories of motivation are explanations of motivation that emphasize people’s internal characteristics.
Equity theory of motivation is an explanation of motivation that emphasizes the individual’s perceived fairness of an employment situation and how perceived inequities can cause certain behaviors.
Esteem needs are Maslow’s fourth set of human needs–including the desires for self-respect and respect from others.
Extrinsic rewards are rewards that are extraneous to the task accomplished.
Flextime is a program that allows workers to complete their jobs within a workweek of a normal number of hours that they schedule themselves.
Hygiene, or maintenance, factors are items that influence the degree of job dissatisfaction.
Intrinsic rewards are rewards that come directly from performing a task.
Job enlargement is the process of increasing the number of operations an individual performs in a job.
Job enrichment is the process of incorporating motivators into a job situation.
Job rotation is the process of moving workers from one job to another rather than requiring them to perform only one simple and specialized job over the long term.
McClelland’s acquired needs theory is an explanation of human needs that focuses on the desires for achievement, power, and affiliation that people develop as a result of their life experiences.
Motivating factors, or motivators, are items that influence the degree of job satisfaction.
Motivation is the inner state that causes an individual to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goal.
Motivation strength is an individual’s degree of desire to perform a behavior.
The needs-goal theory is a motivation model that hypothesizes that felt needs cause human behavior.
Negative reinforcement is a reward that consists of the elimination of an undesirable consequence of behavior.
Physiological needs are Maslow’s first set of human needs––for the normal functioning of the body, including the desires for water, food, rest, sex, and air.
The Porter-Lawler theory is a motivation theory that hypothesizes that felt needs cause human behavior and that motivation strength is determined primarily by the perceived value of the result of performing the behavior and the perceived probability that the behavior performed will cause the result to materialize.
Positive reinforcement is a reward that consists of a desirable consequence of behavior.
Process theories of motivation are explanations of motivation that emphasize how individuals are motivated.
Punishment is the presentation of an undesirable behavior consequence or the removal of a desirable one that decreases the likelihood that the behavior will continue.
Security, or safety, needs are Maslow’s second set of human needs––reflecting the human desire to keep free from physical harm.
Self-actualization needs are Maslow’s fifth, and final, set of human needs–reflecting the human desire to maximize personal potential.
Social needs are Maslow’s third set of human needs––reflecting the human desire to belong, including longings for friendship, companionship, and love.
Theory X is a set of essentially negative assumptions about human nature.
Theory Y is a set of essentially positive assumptions about human nature.
Theory Z is the effectiveness dimension that implies that managers who use either Theory X or Theory Y assumptions when dealing with people can be successful, depending on their situation.
The Vroom expectancy theory is a motivation theory that hypothesizes that felt needs cause human behavior and that motivation strength depends on an individual’s degree of desire to perform a behavior.