Reproductive systems
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Reproductive Systems. Anatomy of Female. A. Ovaries 1. Primary sex organs of the female 2. Produce ova (female gamete) and manufacture female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) 3. During the reproductive years, a single follicle in the ovary matures every 28 days with an ovum inside

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Reproductive Systems

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Reproductive systems

Reproductive Systems


Anatomy of female

Anatomy of Female

  • A. Ovaries

    • 1. Primary sex organs of the female

    • 2. Produce ova (female gamete) and manufacture female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)

    • 3. During the reproductive years, a single follicle in the ovary matures every 28 days with an ovum inside

    • 4. Reproductive ability begins with menarche (first menstrual cycle) during puberty


Accessory female organs

Accessory Female Organs

  • Fallopian Tubes-ducts for ovum from ovaries to uterus

  • Uterus-discharge of menses, development of fetus, expulsion of fetus

  • Vagina-copulation and passageway

  • Vulva-fatty pads, protect internal structures, pleasurable sexual sensation

  • Breasts-milk


Reproductive systems

  • Anatomical regions of uterus

    • Body

    • Cervix

  • Three Layers of Uterus

    • Perimetrium

    • Myometrium

    • Endometrium


Reproductive systems

  • B. Ovulation

    • 1. Mature ovum is released (ovulation) about 2 weeks before

  • menstrual period begins

    • 2. After ovulation, the ovum travels down the fallopian tube

    • 3. Fertilization takes place in fallopian tube, usually within two days of ovulation

    • 4. Following fertilization, the zygote implants in the uterus

    • 5. Development of follicle controlled by FSH, ovulation caused by LH


Reproductive systems

  • B. Fallopian tubes – smooth muscle and cilia help propel ova into

  • uterus

  • C. Menstrual cycle - Occurs every 28 days, divided into 4 stages

    • 1. Follicle stage – FSH from pituitary ovary, stimulates follicle with ovum to mature, releases estrogen and prepares uterine lining, lasts 10 days

    • 2. Ovulation stage – Pituitary stops FSH and releases LH, 14th day follicle ruptures and mature ovum released


Reproductive systems

  • 3. Corpus luteum stage – Corpus luteum secretes progesterone. If ovum fertilized, corpus luteum continues secrete progesterone, which prevents further ovulation and maintains uterine lining,

    • lasts 14 days

  • 4. Menstruation stage – If no embryo, corpus luteumdissolves, progesterone , and uterine lining breaks down and is discharged,

    • 3-6 days


Reproductive systems

  • Estrogen and progesterone-two hormones produced by ovaries.

  • LH and FSH are produced by pituitary gland


Menopause

Menopause

  • a. When monthly menstrual cycle comes to an end

  • b. Approximately age 50

  • c. Symptoms include hot flashes, dizziness, headaches and emotional changes


Diseases of the reproductive system female

Diseases of the Reproductive System(female)

  • 1. Abnormal Positions of Uterus

    • Retroflexion-bending backward

    • Anteversion-fundus towards the pubis and cervix tilted up

    • Retroversion-turning backward, cervix pointing forward toward the symphysis pubis

    • retrocessed uterus: both the superior and inferior ends of the uterus are pushed posteriorly


Reproductive systems

  • 2. Hysterectomy

    • Surgical removal of uterus. Sometimes it includes: fallopian tubes, ovaries and cervix.

    • Performed for the following reasons:

      • Uterine Fibroids.

      • Endometriosis

      • Cancer

      • Chronic pelvic pain

      • Heavy bleeding

      • PID


Reproductive systems

  • 3. PID-Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    • Most common and serious complication of STDs

    • Infection of upper genital area and can affect the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. If left untreated can cause scarring and lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy or chronic pain.

    • Major symptoms:

      • Pain

      • Discharge

      • Fever

      • Irregular menstration

      • Pain with intercourse


Uterine fibroids

Uterine Fibroids

  • Benign tumors made up of muscle cells and other tissues that grow within wall of uterus.

  • Can grow as single or in clusters

  • Most common benign tumor of women of childbearing age

  • Cause unknown

  • Classified by wear they grow;

    • Underneath the lining

    • Between the muscles

    • Outside the uterus


Reproductive systems

  • Women with fibroids my suffer:

    • Heavy bleeding

    • Painful periods

    • Urinating often

    • Feeling of fullness in pelvic area

    • Pain during sex

    • Low back pain

    • Reproductive

  • Treatment:

    • Pain medication

    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists

    • Anti-hormonal agents

    • Surgery

      • Myomectomy

      • Hysterectomy


Reproductive systems

PMS

  • A condition that affects certain women and may cause a group of distressful symptoms

  • Begins approx. 2 weeks before menstruation

  • Believed to be caused by :

    • Amount of prostaglandin produced

    • Deficient or excessive amount of estrogen or progesterone

    • Interrelationship between these factors


To help prevent or relieve symptoms of pms

To help prevent or relieve symptoms of PMS

  • Eat a healthy diet, limit foods high in sodium, caffeine, alcohol and simple sugar

  • Aerobic exercise

  • Vitamins and minerals

  • Relaxation therapy


Medications to treat pms

Medications to treat pms

  • Antidepressants

  • Benzodiazepine medications

  • Modified male hormones

  • Diuretics

  • Hormones

  • Medicines that affect prostaglandin levels


Lifespan of female reproductive system

Lifespan of Female Reproductive System

  • Sex determined at fertilization

    • Female is born with lifetime supply of eggs

  • 16 weeks of gestation, sex organs visible

  • Puberty- Sex organs mature

    • at puberty the female experiences: breast development, vaginal secretions and menarche.

  • About 50-ovaries cease to produce estrogen and progesterone-Menopause.

    • Osteoporosis is common in women after Menopause


Reproductive systems

  • Adnexa

  • Amenorrhea

  • Bartholinitis

  • Biotics

  • Cervicitis

  • Colposcope

  • Contraception

  • Culdocentesis

  • Cystocele

  • Dysmenorrhea

  • Dyspareunia

  • Endometriosis

  • Fibroma

  • Genetics

  • Genitalia

  • Gynecologist

  • Gynecology

  • Hymenectomy

  • Hysterectomy

  • Hysteroscope

  • Hysterotomy

  • Intrauterine device


Reproductive systems

  • Laser ablation

  • Laser laparoscopy

  • Laser lumpectomy

  • Mammoplasty

  • Menarche

  • Menopause

  • Menorrhagia

  • Menorrhea

  • Mittelschmerz

  • Myometritis

  • Oligomenorrhea

  • Oogenesis

  • Oophorectomy

  • Ovulation

  • Perimenopause

  • Postcoital

  • Retrovaginal

  • Retroversion

  • Salpingectomy

  • Salpingitis

  • Salpingo-oophorectomy

  • Vaginits

  • venereal


Conception and pregnancy

Conception and pregnancy

  • 1. Gametes are produced by gonads

  • a. Female gonad = ovary

  • b. Female gamete = ovum (ova)

  • c. Male gonad = testes

  • d. Male gamete = sperm


Anatomy of male

Anatomy of Male

  • A. Testes

    • 1. Found in scrotum

    • 2. Size of small egg

    • 3. Made up of 250 lobules, each with coiled seminiferous tubules

  • B. Epididymis

    • 1. Collection of tubes above the testes

    • 2. Connect the testes with the vas deferens


Anatomy of male1

Anatomy of Male

  • C. Vas Deferens

    • 1. Runs from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

    • 2. Seminal vesicles connect to vas deferens

    • 3. Ejaculatory duct connects vas deferens with urethra

  • D. Scrotum – sac of skin that contains testes

  • E. Penis

    • 1. Contains erectile tissue

    • 2. End covered by foreskin – loose fitting skin


Anatomy of male2

Anatomy of Male

  • F. Prostate Gland

    • 1. Surrounds beginning of urethra

    • 2. Size and shape of chestnut

  • G. Bulbourethral glands – located below prostate


Physiology of male

Physiology of Male

  • A. Testes

    • 1. Produce male gametes (spermatozoa)

    • 2. Produce male sex hormone – testosterone

    • 3. Inside, each lobule contains coiled seminiferous tubules where sperm develop

    • 4. In embryo, testes formed in the abdomen and during the last 3 months, migrate into scrotum

  • B. Epididymis – where sperm are stored

  • C. Vas Deferens – serves as a passageway for sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct


Physiology of male1

Physiology of Male

  • D. Scrotum – serves as container for testes

  • E. Penis

    • 1. Contains erectile tissue

    • 2. Organ of copulation

    • 3. Tip of penis covered with foreskin, which is often removed during circumcision

  • F. Prostate Gland – secretes a fluid that enhances sperm motility and adds fluid to semen


Physiology of male2

Physiology of Male

  • G. Bulbourethral glands – add alkaline secretion to semen that helps

  • sperm live longer

  • H. Erection and ejaculation

    • 1. Urethra has dual role – excretion of urine and to expel semen

    • 2. Erection caused when erectile tissue fills with blood

    • 3. Ejaculation expels semen

    • 4. Impotence – unable to copulate (hold an erection)

  • I. Infertility – lack of conception due to fallopian tube damage, low

  • sperm count, hormone imbalance, and other disorders


Reproductive systems

  • Endometriosis- condition in which the endometrial tissue occurs in various sites in the abdominal or pelvic cavity.


Med term words

Med term words

  • 1. Artificial insemination – semen placed into vaginal canal, usually

  • around time of ovulation.

  • 2. In-vitro fertilization – ova fertilized with sperm in laboratory,

  • zygote transferred to uterus

  • 3. Laparoscopy – tube inserted though small incision in abdominal

  • wall

  • 4. Hysterectomy – surgical removal of uterus

  • 5. Mastectomy – surgical removal of breast

  • 6. Mammogram – breast x-ray to detect tumors, usually

  • recommended for women over age 40

  • 7. Vasectomy – male sterilization, removal of part of the vas

  • deferens

  • 8. Cryptorchidism – undescended testicle, may require surgical

  • correction

  • 9. Circumcision – surgical removal of the foreskin


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