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Reproductive Systems. Anatomy of Female. A. Ovaries 1. Primary sex organs of the female 2. Produce ova (female gamete) and manufacture female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) 3. During the reproductive years, a single follicle in the ovary matures every 28 days with an ovum inside

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Anatomy of female
Anatomy of Female

  • A. Ovaries

    • 1. Primary sex organs of the female

    • 2. Produce ova (female gamete) and manufacture female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)

    • 3. During the reproductive years, a single follicle in the ovary matures every 28 days with an ovum inside

    • 4. Reproductive ability begins with menarche (first menstrual cycle) during puberty


Accessory female organs
Accessory Female Organs

  • Fallopian Tubes-ducts for ovum from ovaries to uterus

  • Uterus-discharge of menses, development of fetus, expulsion of fetus

  • Vagina-copulation and passageway

  • Vulva-fatty pads, protect internal structures, pleasurable sexual sensation

  • Breasts-milk



  • B. Ovulation

    • 1. Mature ovum is released (ovulation) about 2 weeks before

  • menstrual period begins

    • 2. After ovulation, the ovum travels down the fallopian tube

    • 3. Fertilization takes place in fallopian tube, usually within two days of ovulation

    • 4. Following fertilization, the zygote implants in the uterus

    • 5. Development of follicle controlled by FSH, ovulation caused by LH


  • B. Fallopian tubes – smooth muscle and cilia help propel ova into

  • uterus

  • C. Menstrual cycle - Occurs every 28 days, divided into 4 stages

    • 1. Follicle stage – FSH from pituitary ovary, stimulates follicle with ovum to mature, releases estrogen and prepares uterine lining, lasts 10 days

    • 2. Ovulation stage – Pituitary stops FSH and releases LH, 14th day follicle ruptures and mature ovum released


  • 3. ova intoCorpus luteum stage – Corpus luteum secretes progesterone. If ovum fertilized, corpus luteum continues secrete progesterone, which prevents further ovulation and maintains uterine lining,

    • lasts 14 days

  • 4. Menstruation stage – If no embryo, corpus luteumdissolves, progesterone , and uterine lining breaks down and is discharged,

    • 3-6 days



Menopause
Menopause ova into

  • a. When monthly menstrual cycle comes to an end

  • b. Approximately age 50

  • c. Symptoms include hot flashes, dizziness, headaches and emotional changes


Diseases of the reproductive system female
Diseases of the Reproductive System (female) ova into

  • 1. Abnormal Positions of Uterus

    • Retroflexion-bending backward

    • Anteversion-fundus towards the pubis and cervix tilted up

    • Retroversion-turning backward, cervix pointing forward toward the symphysis pubis

    • retrocessed uterus: both the superior and inferior ends of the uterus are pushed posteriorly


  • 2. Hysterectomy ova into

    • Surgical removal of uterus. Sometimes it includes: fallopian tubes, ovaries and cervix.

    • Performed for the following reasons:

      • Uterine Fibroids.

      • Endometriosis

      • Cancer

      • Chronic pelvic pain

      • Heavy bleeding

      • PID


  • 3. PID-Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ova into

    • Most common and serious complication of STDs

    • Infection of upper genital area and can affect the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. If left untreated can cause scarring and lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy or chronic pain.

    • Major symptoms:

      • Pain

      • Discharge

      • Fever

      • Irregular menstration

      • Pain with intercourse


Uterine fibroids
Uterine Fibroids ova into

  • Benign tumors made up of muscle cells and other tissues that grow within wall of uterus.

  • Can grow as single or in clusters

  • Most common benign tumor of women of childbearing age

  • Cause unknown

  • Classified by wear they grow;

    • Underneath the lining

    • Between the muscles

    • Outside the uterus


  • Women with fibroids my suffer: ova into

    • Heavy bleeding

    • Painful periods

    • Urinating often

    • Feeling of fullness in pelvic area

    • Pain during sex

    • Low back pain

    • Reproductive

  • Treatment:

    • Pain medication

    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists

    • Anti-hormonal agents

    • Surgery

      • Myomectomy

      • Hysterectomy


PMS ova into

  • A condition that affects certain women and may cause a group of distressful symptoms

  • Begins approx. 2 weeks before menstruation

  • Believed to be caused by :

    • Amount of prostaglandin produced

    • Deficient or excessive amount of estrogen or progesterone

    • Interrelationship between these factors


To help prevent or relieve symptoms of pms
To help prevent or relieve symptoms of PMS ova into

  • Eat a healthy diet, limit foods high in sodium, caffeine, alcohol and simple sugar

  • Aerobic exercise

  • Vitamins and minerals

  • Relaxation therapy


Medications to treat pms
Medications to treat ova intopms

  • Antidepressants

  • Benzodiazepine medications

  • Modified male hormones

  • Diuretics

  • Hormones

  • Medicines that affect prostaglandin levels


Lifespan of female reproductive system
Lifespan of Female Reproductive System ova into

  • Sex determined at fertilization

    • Female is born with lifetime supply of eggs

  • 16 weeks of gestation, sex organs visible

  • Puberty- Sex organs mature

    • at puberty the female experiences: breast development, vaginal secretions and menarche.

  • About 50-ovaries cease to produce estrogen and progesterone-Menopause.

    • Osteoporosis is common in women after Menopause


  • Adnexa ova into

  • Amenorrhea

  • Bartholinitis

  • Biotics

  • Cervicitis

  • Colposcope

  • Contraception

  • Culdocentesis

  • Cystocele

  • Dysmenorrhea

  • Dyspareunia

  • Endometriosis

  • Fibroma

  • Genetics

  • Genitalia

  • Gynecologist

  • Gynecology

  • Hymenectomy

  • Hysterectomy

  • Hysteroscope

  • Hysterotomy

  • Intrauterine device


  • Laser ablation ova into

  • Laser laparoscopy

  • Laser lumpectomy

  • Mammoplasty

  • Menarche

  • Menopause

  • Menorrhagia

  • Menorrhea

  • Mittelschmerz

  • Myometritis

  • Oligomenorrhea

  • Oogenesis

  • Oophorectomy

  • Ovulation

  • Perimenopause

  • Postcoital

  • Retrovaginal

  • Retroversion

  • Salpingectomy

  • Salpingitis

  • Salpingo-oophorectomy

  • Vaginits

  • venereal


Conception and pregnancy
Conception and pregnancy ova into

  • 1. Gametes are produced by gonads

  • a. Female gonad = ovary

  • b. Female gamete = ovum (ova)

  • c. Male gonad = testes

  • d. Male gamete = sperm


Anatomy of male
Anatomy of Male ova into

  • A. Testes

    • 1. Found in scrotum

    • 2. Size of small egg

    • 3. Made up of 250 lobules, each with coiled seminiferous tubules

  • B. Epididymis

    • 1. Collection of tubes above the testes

    • 2. Connect the testes with the vas deferens


Anatomy of male1
Anatomy of Male ova into

  • C. Vas Deferens

    • 1. Runs from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

    • 2. Seminal vesicles connect to vas deferens

    • 3. Ejaculatory duct connects vas deferens with urethra

  • D. Scrotum – sac of skin that contains testes

  • E. Penis

    • 1. Contains erectile tissue

    • 2. End covered by foreskin – loose fitting skin


Anatomy of male2
Anatomy of Male ova into

  • F. Prostate Gland

    • 1. Surrounds beginning of urethra

    • 2. Size and shape of chestnut

  • G. Bulbourethral glands – located below prostate


Physiology of male
Physiology of Male ova into

  • A. Testes

    • 1. Produce male gametes (spermatozoa)

    • 2. Produce male sex hormone – testosterone

    • 3. Inside, each lobule contains coiled seminiferous tubules where sperm develop

    • 4. In embryo, testes formed in the abdomen and during the last 3 months, migrate into scrotum

  • B. Epididymis – where sperm are stored

  • C. Vas Deferens – serves as a passageway for sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct


Physiology of male1
Physiology of Male ova into

  • D. Scrotum – serves as container for testes

  • E. Penis

    • 1. Contains erectile tissue

    • 2. Organ of copulation

    • 3. Tip of penis covered with foreskin, which is often removed during circumcision

  • F. Prostate Gland – secretes a fluid that enhances sperm motility and adds fluid to semen


Physiology of male2
Physiology of Male ova into

  • G. Bulbourethral glands – add alkaline secretion to semen that helps

  • sperm live longer

  • H. Erection and ejaculation

    • 1. Urethra has dual role – excretion of urine and to expel semen

    • 2. Erection caused when erectile tissue fills with blood

    • 3. Ejaculation expels semen

    • 4. Impotence – unable to copulate (hold an erection)

  • I. Infertility – lack of conception due to fallopian tube damage, low

  • sperm count, hormone imbalance, and other disorders



Med term words
Med term words occurs in various sites in the abdominal or pelvic cavity.

  • 1. Artificial insemination – semen placed into vaginal canal, usually

  • around time of ovulation.

  • 2. In-vitro fertilization – ova fertilized with sperm in laboratory,

  • zygote transferred to uterus

  • 3. Laparoscopy – tube inserted though small incision in abdominal

  • wall

  • 4. Hysterectomy – surgical removal of uterus

  • 5. Mastectomy – surgical removal of breast

  • 6. Mammogram – breast x-ray to detect tumors, usually

  • recommended for women over age 40

  • 7. Vasectomy – male sterilization, removal of part of the vas

  • deferens

  • 8. Cryptorchidism – undescended testicle, may require surgical

  • correction

  • 9. Circumcision – surgical removal of the foreskin


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