Effective teaching and learning for second language learners. Why this course?. diverse student population: cultural and language diversity in most classrooms many students need support learning English as a second language
Teaching English Language Learners across the curriculum | NSW Department of Education and Training, 2009
Effective teaching and learning for second language learners
Teaching English Language Learners across the curriculum | NSW Department of Education and Training, 2009Why this course?
Teaching English Language Learners across the curriculum | NSW Department of Education and Training, 2009Course outcomes
LBOTE students are those whose parents or who themselves speak a language other than English in the home
Of these LBOTE students, some need ESL support and some will be proficient in English
ESL students are those LBOTE students who are learning English as a second language.
LBOTE and ESL learners
Total school population
ESL Students proficiency
1st Phase 2nd Phase 3rd Phase
Countries of birth:
It takes many years for native speakers of English to acquire fluency in spoken and written English. ESL students have to catch up in a limited time.
ESL students must:
- learn English,
- learn through English and
- learn about English at the same time (Halliday, 1980)
Teachers need to understand HOW English is developed as a second language
BICS & CALP
According to Cummins (1984), there are 2 stages of language proficiency. The first stage includes Basic interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and the second stage is Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).
It takes 1-2 years for a new ESL student to be fluent in the first stage (BICS) and 5 – 7 years for an ESL student to develop proficiency in CALP with ESL support.
While these stages are sequential they may overlap in acquisition.
Jim Cummins, Canadian researcher into second language learning and bilingualism
students who have education in their first language can develop academic English in 4 years or less
students who have disrupted education in their first language may take up to 10 years to develop academic English language
students who have had no schooling in any language may take 7 to 12 years to develop academic English language