Gu anatomy and physiology
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GU ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. a nd HISTORY & PHYSICAL EXAM. KIDNEYS. Two kidneys, purplish brown organs Located below the ribs toward the back Remove waste from the blood Keep a stable balance of salts and other substances Produce erythropoietin, aids in the formation of red blood cells.

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Gu anatomy and physiology

GU ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

and

HISTORY & PHYSICAL EXAM


Kidneys

KIDNEYS

  • Two kidneys, purplish brown organs

  • Located below the ribs toward the back

  • Remove waste from the blood

  • Keep a stable balance of salts and other substances

  • Produce erythropoietin, aids in the formation of red blood cells


Gross anatomy

GROSS ANATOMY


Gu anatomy and physiology

  • Adrenal gland caps each kidney

  • Enclosed within Gerota’s fascia

  • Each adrenal receives three arteries

  • Right adrenal vein empties into the vena cava

  • Left terminates in the left renal vein

  • Lymphatic vessels drain into the lumbar lymph nodes


Histology

HISTOLOGY

  • Functioning units of the kidneys are nephrons

  • Secretory portion contained in the cortex

  • Excretory portion is the collecting tubule


Blood supply

BLOOD SUPPLY

  • One renal artery, branch of the aorta

  • Renal artery divides into the anterior and posterior branches

  • Renal veins are paired with the ateries

  • Accessory renal vessels are common


Ureters

URETERS

  • Two ureters

  • Narrow tubes carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder

  • Adult ureter 30 cm long


Stones

STONES


Bladder

BLADDER

  • Triangular-shaped, hollow organ

  • Located in the lower abdomen

  • Attached by ligaments to other organs and pelvic bones

  • Nerves alert when time to urinate

  • Two sphincter muscles circular muscles that keep urine from leaking


Histology of the bladder

HISTOLOGY OF THE BLADDER

  • Bladder is composed of transitional epithelium

  • Beneath is well-developed submucosal layer

  • Detrusor muscle is made of a mixture of smooth muscle fibers, three different layers


Male gu anatomy

MALE GU ANATOMY

  • Seminal vesicles lie cephalic to the prostate

  • Spermatic cord extends from the internal inguinal ring

  • Epididymis connected to the testis by numerous ducts, markedly coiled


Penis and male urethra

PENIS AND MALE URETHRA

  • Two corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum, contains the urethra

  • Aterial supply internal pudenda arteries

  • Each artery divides into a deep artery of the penis

  • Dorsal vein lies external to Buck’s fascia

  • May be 15 to 23 cm in length


Prostate gland

PROSTATE GLAND

  • Fibromuscular and glandular organ

  • Inferior to the bladder

  • Weighs about 20 g

  • Contains the posterior urethra

  • Consists of 5 lobes

  • Glands drain into the major excretory ducts, which open in the floor of the urethra


Digital rectal exam

Digital Rectal Exam


Testis

TESTIS

  • Average testicle 4X3X2 cm

  • Dense covering, tunica albuginea

  • Covered anteriorly and laterally by serous tunica vaginalis

  • Blood supply associated with that of the kidneys


Scrotum

SCROTUM

  • Beneath skin of the scrotum dartos muscle

  • Three fascial layers from the abdominal wall

  • Two sacs divided by septum of connective tissue

  • Helps to regulate environmental temperature


Normal male anatomy

Normal Male Anatomy


Paraphimosis

Paraphimosis


Gu anatomy and physiology

An Interesting Thought:

More money is spent today on Viagra and breast reconstruction than on Alzheimer's research. So by the year 2040, there will be lots of elderly people walking around with perky boobs, huge erections, and no idea what to do with them.


Female pelvic anatomy

FEMALE PELVIC ANATOMY

  • Ovaries

  • Uterine fallopian tubes

  • Uterus

  • Cervix

  • Urinary bladder

  • Ureters

  • Vagina

  • Rectum


Female urethra

FEMALE URETHRA

  • About 4 cm long

  • Lies beneath the pubic symphysis anterior to the vagina

  • Arterial supply from the vesical, vaginal, and internal pudendal arteries

  • Lymphatic drainage from the external portion is to the inguinal and subinguinal lymph nodes


Normal development of the gu system

NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE GU SYSTEM

  • Three embryonic kidneys

    pronephros 3 weeks

    mesonephros 5 weeks

    metanephros 5 weeks

    Nephrogenesis complete at 34 – 36 weeks


Normal development

NORMAL DEVELOPMENT

  • Bladder and ureter development third week

  • of gestation

  • Formation of the trigone by day 33

  • Urine production by 10-12 weeks gestation

  • Genital formation begins during the fifth week of gestation


Gu assessment of the infant and child

GU ASSESSMENT OF THE INFANT AND CHILD

  • Abdomen: pain, masses

  • External genitalia: normal or abnormal

  • Consider sexual abuse: must be reported


Tanner system

Tanner System


Balanitis

Balanitis


Elements of examination

Elements of Examination

  • Constitutional

  • Head, face, eyes, ears, nose, mouth and throat

  • Neck

  • Respiratory

  • Cardiovascular

  • Gastrointestinal (Abdomen)

  • Lymphatic

  • Musculoskeletal/Extremities

  • Skin

  • Neurologic


Male genitourinary exam

MALE GENITOURINARY EXAM

  • Scrotum: lesions, cysts, rashes

  • Epididymides: size, symmetry, masses

  • Testes: size, symmetry, masses

  • Urethral meatus: size, location, lesions, discharge

  • Penis: lesions, presence or absence of foreskin, foreskin retractibility, plague, masses, scarring, deformities


Digital rectal exam1

DIGITAL RECTAL EXAM

  • Prostate gland: size, symmetry, nodularity, tenderness

  • Sphincter tone, presence of hemorrhoids, rectal masses


Female genitourinary exam

FEMALE GENITOURINARY EXAM

  • External genitalia: general appearance, hair distribution, lesions

  • Urethral meatus: size, location, lesions, prolapse

  • Bladder: fullness, masses, tenderness

  • Vagina: general appearance, estrogen effect, discharge, lesions, pelvic support, cystocele, rectocele


Female

Female

  • Cervix: general appearance, lesions, discharge

  • Uterus: size, contour, position, mobility, tenderness, consistency, descent or support

  • Adnexa: masses, tenderness, organomegaly

  • Anus, perineum


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