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GI pathophysiology Review section PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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GI pathophysiology Review section. Bios E-162b, Dec 5, 2010. Overview of the GI system. Transit of foodstuffs through the GI system. The wall of the GI tract has several layers.

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GI pathophysiology Review section

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GI pathophysiology

Review section

Bios E-162b, Dec 5, 2010

Overview of the GI system

Transit of foodstuffs through the GI system

The wall of the GI tract has several layers

Sphincters control the transit from one section of the GI tract to the next

Bile and pancreatic secretions are emptied at the same point in the duodenum

The enteric nervous system regulates GI activity

GI hormones also regulate GI activity

Gastroesophageal reflux is due to an insufficient closure of the lower esophageal sphincter

Hiatus hernias may also cause gastroesophageal reflux

Several factors may cause or aggravate GER

  • Young age

  • Obesity

  • Pregnancy

  • Postural changes after eating

  • - Smoking

  • - Peppermint, coffee, alcohol

  • - Diseases of connective tissue

GER may lead to Barrett’s esophagus

Gastric metaplasia of the esophageal epithelium

Barrett’s esophagus mat lead to esophageal adenocarcinoma

The stomach mucosa produces acid, mucus and pepsinogen

Several mediators induce acid secretion

Peptic ulcers come from an imbalance between acid vs. mucus + HCO3

H. Pilori is the most common cause

H. Pilori is the most common cause

The digestion of carbohydrates

Most dietary carbs are polysaccharides

Cooper GM. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition.

The digestion of carbohydrates

Allcarbohydrates are convertedtomonosaccharidesbeforeabsorption

salivary a-amilase

5% starch


salivary a-amilase

25% starch





The digestion of carbohydrates

Disaccharidases at intestinal villitransformdisaccharides in monosaccharides

The digestion of fats

Types of diarrhea


ie. Lactose intolerance


ie. Cholera


ie. Celiac disease


ie. Chron’s disease

High motility

ie. Some medications

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