Chapter 1: The Study of Life. Introduction to Biology Objectives for section 1:. Define Biology Identify possible benefits from studying biology Summarize the characteristics of living things. The Science of Biology. Biology: The science of life (the study of Life and living organisms)
Chapter 1: The Study of Life
(the study of Life and living organisms)
– how they interact and function
- their origins and history;
- develop concepts, principles and theories that allow people to understand their environment.
(Basically they study problems and propose solutions)
An organism is anything that has or once had all of these characteristics:
Unicellular -- one-celled (bacteria, protists)
Multicellular -- many-celled (humans, plants)
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things.
2) Living things display organization
3.All living things grow and develop
growth – an ability to increase in size; either by increasing cell size or by adding on other cells - increase in amount of living material, forming new structuresdevelopment: all change during life of an organism
4) Living things Reproduce
reproduction; production of offspring
species - a group of similar looking organisms that can interbreed successfully (fertile)
5) Living things adjust to their environment
environment: living things interface with surroundings
stimulus: condition in environment which requires an organism to adjust
response: reaction to a stimulus
adaptation: structure, behavior, or internal process enables an organism to respond to stimuli and better survive (are inherited)
6. Living things require energy.
a. Energy: the ability to do work or make things move;
1. powers life, homeostasis, movement, growth, reproduction, bioluminescense
2. flows through communities (one way)
b. Organisms either make food for themselves (Producers = plants) or have to find and eat food for energy (Consumers = animals)
7. Living things maintain homeostasis:
regulation of an animal’s internal environment to maintain conditions suitable to their environment
(energy is important here!)
8. Living things have adaptations that evolve over time…
Certain features make them better able to survive and reproduce.
Adaptations are any inherited characteristic that results from evolution
example: drip tips on the leaves of rainforest trees.
evolution: gradual change in the characteristics of species over time
- different from what common folk say.
An explanation of natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained from many different experiments and observations over time
- allows scientists to predict new facts & relationships
Astrology is PSEUDOSCIENCE!
Examples: astrology, horoscopes, psychic readings, tarot cards, face reading (Physiognomy), head reading (Phrenology), palmistry.
(with pseudoscience, little research is done… new questions or research is NOT WELCOMED)
Scientists challenge report of one Argentine ant supercolony flooding California
A team of California scientists made headlines four years ago when it reported finding one of the largest insect colonies in the world -- a 600-mile-long subterranean network of Argentine ants stretching from Northern California to the Mexican border. According to the researchers, this "supercolony" is made up of billions of closely related workers -- all direct descendants of a small group of Argentine ants that were accidentally introduced into California more than a century ago.
Graduate student Nicole Heller, left, and biological sciences Professor Deborah Gordon discussed the Jasper Ridge project in Gordon's office. The project analyzed the DNA from ants in the biological preserve and found obvious genetic differences among some of them, suggesting that the ants came from different colonies. Photo: L.A. Cicero
(pseudoscience discards or ignores observations that are inconsistent with beliefs)
(pseudoscience makes claims that cannot be tested, mix fact and opinion.
- once research is done it is people of society make a decision
Observation = a direct method of gathering info about a natural phenomenon in an orderly way.
Inferences = combining what you already know with what you have learned to begin making logical conclusions.
(an assumption based upon prior experiences)
Ex: when we see smoke, we infer fire
Ohh… This liquid is green and it is leaking from a brown can. I also smell it.
Observation: when studying something describe only facts that you can see, touch, smell and hear. You are not making any guesses.
THIS IS NOT AN
Based on my observations, I think that this can is old and is leaking a toxic substance.
Inference: using your observations to make a guess about an object or an outcome
THIS CAN BE A SCIENTIFIC OPINION
A series of problem-solving procedures that might include:
Experiment: to investigate a phenomenon in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis.
1) a control group – a group used for comparison, do not have the experimental variable
2) an experimental group – the group exposed to the factor that is being tested
independent variable – the tested factor, it might affect the outcome of the experiment, what is being manipulated or changed
dependent variable – what is measured, this results from or depends on the changes made to the independent variable
constant – a factor that remains fixed (also called control factor)
Quantitative = numerical data that is easy to analyze statistically (averages, graphs)
measurements of time, temp.,length, mass, area, volume, density, etc…
Qualitative = descriptions from 5 senses, give a more in depth and rich description
(sometimes is the only data you can get)
(ex: journal of the american medical association)