Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications
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Aroma therapy in Ayurveda C oncept and Therapeutic applications . N.SRIKANTH ASSISTANT DIRECTOR CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN AYURVEDIC SCIENCES Department of AYUSH Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India. Start of process. Natural products Botanical Animal

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Aroma therapy in Ayurveda C oncept and Therapeutic applications

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Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

Aroma therapy in AyurvedaConcept and Therapeutic applications

N.SRIKANTH

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR

CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN AYURVEDIC SCIENCES

Department of AYUSH

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare

Government of India


Start of process

Start of process

  • Natural products

    • Botanical

    • Animal

    • Mineral

      origins from India have initiated the scientific quest of Drugs since antiquity.


Start of process evolution of indian pharmacopeia

Start of processEvolution of Indian pharmacopeia

  • India is having the world’s richest flora, comprising of about 120 families of plants, comprising

  • 1,30,000 species.

  • Ayurvedic texts cover about 2400 species of plants with their medicinal uses as described

  • by ancient Indian medical scholars.

  • 10,000 herbs are used worldwide for medicinal purposes


Roots of clinical experimentation and drug trials

Roots of Clinical Experimentation and Drug Trials

Susruta’s Approach: Reverse Pharmacology

  • Test intervention (Tallingatwat)

    • Feasibility; observational design (Dristhaphalatwat)

  • System validation (Agamaatsya)


Roots of clinical experimentation and drug trials1

Roots of Clinical Experimentation and Drug Trials

Charaka’s Approach: Meticulous design & Emphasis on Reproducibility

  • Feasible ideology / Hypothesis

    (Budhipsyathiyabhavaan)

  • Multi dimensional approach in planning & assessment (Bahukaranayogajaan)

  • Appropriate design (Yukti-Yogna)

  • Perpetually valid outcome and reproducibility (Yuktihtrikalah)


Start of process1

Start of process

  • Some of the Ayurvedic plants

    • Interesting leads for drug discovery

    • Structural modifications of active principles leading to a cascade of new “chemical” drugs

    • In global use and pharmacology research


Phyto chemical class

Phyto Chemical Class

Source: Ehrman et al, J ChemInf Model 2007; 47(2):254-263


Market potential

Market Potential

  • Market comprising of Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha & Homoeopathic medicine is around US $ 1.5 billion  Rs 8800 Crore.

  • Approximate share of Ayurvedic formulations is 84% (Homeopathy 14%, Unani 2% and Siddha less than 1%.)


Use of traditional medicine

Use of Traditional Medicine

*Status and Role of AYUSH and Local Health Traditions Under National Rural Health Mission- Report of a Study; National Health Systems Resource Centre, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India New Delhi; 2010

WHO traditional medicine strategy 2002-2005. Document WHO/EDM/TRM/2002.


Aroma therapy

Aroma therapy

  • AROMA indicates Fragrance & therapy denotes treatment.

  • The therapy in which Aromatic material is used called Aromatherapy.


Four major areas of applications

Four major areas of applications


Aroma therapy historical perspective

Aroma Therapy – Historical Perspective


Aroma therapy historical outlook

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook

  • Antiquity of use of medicinal and aromatic plants, poly herbal, mineral based formulations for therapeutic and cosmetic purpose goes back to the Vedic period

  • Vedic literatures recount about

    • Nutritive

    • Immune enhancing

      actions attributed to aromatic properties

‘SugandhimPustivardhanam’


Aroma therapy historical outlook1

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook

  • A mention of importance of cosmetics is highlighted in Mantras and descriptions on gods and goddesses.

  • Number of Aromatic plants/ preparations have been in use for

    • Psychosomatic disorders

    • As antimicrobial agents

    • As antiseptics


Aroma therapy historical outlook2

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook

  • Description of medicinal and cosmetic utility plants viz

    • Kustha (Sassurealappa)

    • Chandana (Santalam album)

    • Kumkum (Crocus sativus)

      can be traced from oldest Indian literatures like

      Upanishads, epics, etc.

  • Many cosmetics are described which are aromatic in nature.


Aroma therapy historical outlook3

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook

  • Lord Dhanvantari the God of Ayurveda is the Incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

  • Their description denotes the importance and uses of Aromatic material like

    • KasturiTilakam

    • ChandanLepanam etc.

  • Gandhamadan, a mountain named after so, harboring ample fragrant plants (Ramayan, Vagbhata)


Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook

ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY


Aroma therapy historical outlook4

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook

ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY


Aroma therapy historical outlook5

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook


Aroma therapy historical outlook6

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook

ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY


Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

Aroma therapy - Historical outlook


Concept of aroma in ayurveda

Concept of Aroma in Ayurveda

  • Aroma - as an integral component of PrithviMahabhuta attributed with GandhaGuna (fragrance)

  • Categorized as

    • Surabhi (compatible )

    • Asurabhi(incompatible)

  • Therapeutic Value:A number of aromatic plant, animal & mineral sources attributed with medicinal value.

  • Relevance in Anatomical applications (PhanaMarma)


Concept

Concept….

  • Specific pharmaceutical dosage forms to retain the aroma of the drugs. (Arka, Hima, Phanta etc.)

  • Numerous pharmaceutical & clinical applications

  • Special routes of administration of dosage forms pertaining to aromatic properties

  • Personal, Social & Environmental Hygiene and preventive health care


Applications of aroma therapy in ayurveda

Applications of Aroma Therapy in Ayurveda

  • Ayurvedic literatures mention the following wide-ranging applications of Aroma in Health Care System:

    • Preventive health

    • Environmental Health

    • Public health

    • Pharmaceuticals

    • Therapeutics


Applications in preventive health

Applications in Preventive Health

  • Utility of garlands enriched with aromatic flowers as a part of daily regime (Ch. Su. 5/96)

  • Inhaling flavors/fumes of aromatic medicinal plants as a daily regime

  • Prescribed to stay in gardens having aromatic flowers in summer seasons as a part of seasonal regime

  • Fumigation of clothing with aromatic plants/products

  • Avoidance of exposure to excessive/improper smells/flavors


Applications in environmental public health

Applications in Environmental & Public Health

  • Purification of waterwith aromatic herbs

  • Fumigating the environment with aromatic plants/products to prevent epidemics/infectious diseases

  • Sterilizing the labour rooms, Pediatric wards & OTs with antimicrobial aromatic plants (DashangDhoopa)


Applications in pharmaceutics

Applications in Pharmaceutics

  • Evolution of specialized dosage forms for aromatic herbs to retain their medicinal properties (Arka etc.)

  • Fumigating the containers with aromatic plants/products to prevent contamination & infestations

  • Sterilizing the Drug store rooms, with Anti-microbial aromatic plants

  • Determining the pharmaceutical specifications/end-points of manufacturing processes of various dosage forms (Avaleha & medicated oil/ghee etc)


Applications in pharmaceutics1

Applications in Pharmaceutics

  • Addition of aromatic excipients/Treatment of distillates of aromatic medicinal herbs according to targeted indications (Arka)

    - For Vata Disorders : Guggulu

    - For Pitta Disorders : Chandana

    - For Kapha Disorders : Jatamamsi

  • Use of aromatic excipients for patients’ compliance/acceptability

  • Treating the oils with aromatic plants/products before utilizing them for manufacture (taila and ghritamurchana)


Applications in therapeutics

Applications in Therapeutics

  • Fumigation for wound-healing

  • Fumigation to prevent & manage infectious & contagious diseases

  • Induction of emesis (Madanaphala-Lotus)

  • Aphrodisiac agents

Nardostachysjatamansi


Applications in therapeutics1

Applications in Therapeutics

  • Nasal Administration of certain medicaments

  • Management of headache

  • Management of psychotic disorders to restore the consciousness

    e.g. Restoring consciousness of Lakshman is an example of application of aromatic nasal medicaments as narrated in Ramayana.


Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

Some ayurvedic Aromatic Medicinal Plants


Some ayurvedic aromatic m edicinal p lants

Some ayurvedic Aromatic Medicinal Plants


Some ayurvedic aromatic m edicinal p lants1

Some ayurvedic Aromatic Medicinal Plants


Some ayurvedic aromatic m edicinal p lants2

Some ayurvedic Aromatic Medicinal Plants


Some ayurvedic aromatic m edicinal p lants3

Some ayurvedic Aromatic Medicinal Plants


Therapeutic values of essential oils

Therapeutic Values Of Essential OILS


Therapeutic values of essential oils1

Therapeutic Values Of Essential OILS

  • Arkaprakasha, ancient book on Ayurveda contributed by Ravana has elaborated the importance of

    - therapeutic utility of essential oils

    -pharmaceutical SOPs for preparations of distillates from aromatic plants for topical and internal use.


Role of essential oils in aroma therapy

Role of Essential oils in Aroma therapy

  • Skin health care

  • Emotional care(Relieving stress)

  • Respiratory diseases

  • Muscular pain

  • Digestive disorders

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Hormonal balance


Role of aroma

Role of Aroma……

  • Aroma therapy may acts as:

    • An add on or adjuvant therapy with conventional medicine

    • Supports emotionally during main therapy


Classification of a romatic drugs

Classification of Aromatic Drugs

Aromatic Drugs may be Organic or Inorganic

Organic –Animal Origin

  • Musk

  • Ambar (Dried Intestinal material of whale)

    Inorganic

  • Clay from specific places like PadmajPanka.

    (Mud surrounding Lotus).

  • MultaniMitti


Herbal other material

Herbal & other material

  • Pandanusodorotissinus– ketaki

  • Jasminumofficinale – Jati

  • Rosa centifolia – Taruni

  • Cinnamomum – Dalchini

  • CumminSeeds – Jiram

  • Alpiniagalanga– Kulinjan’


Herbal other material1

Herbal & other material

  • CyperusRotundus – Nut grass

  • Curcuma longa – Haldi

  • Sussurealappa – kushtha

  • Nelumbonucifera –Sacred lotus

  • SantalumAlbum – Sandlewood

  • Citrus medica – Matulunga

  • Aqualariaagollocha – Agaru

  • Crocus sativus – Kesar


Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

Curcuma longa


Herbal other material2

Herbal & other material

  • Pterocarpussantalum – Red Sandal

  • Buteamonosperma – Palash

  • Nymphaeastellata – Nilkamal

  • Zingiberofficinale - Dry ginger

  • CidrusDeodara– Deodar

  • Micheliachapaca– Champa


Herbal other material3

Herbal & other material

  • Vetiverazizanioidis – Ushira

  • Shorearobusta - Sarjarasa (Ral)

  • Piper longum– Pippali

  • Piper nigrum – Maricha

  • Madhucaindica– Mahuva

  • Cinnamonumtamala- Tejpatra


Herbal other material4

Herbal & other material

  • Mesuaferrea – Nagkesar

  • Callicarpamacrophylla – Priyangu

  • Psoraliacorylifolia – Bakuchi

  • Feronialimonia – Kapitthapatra

  • Nardostachysjatamansi – Jatamansi

  • Anethumsova– Shatpushpa

  • Ellettariacardamonum – Ela

  • Parmeliaperlata – stone flowers (clove)


Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

Mesuaferrea

Nardostachysjatamansi


Ayurvedic preparations containing aromatic herbs

Ayurvedic preparations containing Aromatic herbs

  • Most of the above class drugs are described in many diseases

  • But their main use is in

    • Respiratory

    • Cardiac

    • Aphrodisiac

    • Cosmetic &

    • Oral preparations


Respiratory aromatic preparations

Respiratory Aromatic Preparations

  • Karpurasava

  • Trijatakvati

  • Tulsitailam,

  • Jivandhara inhalation


Cardiac aromatic preparations

Cardiac Aromatic Preparations

  • Cinnamonumcamphora

  • Preparations

  • Kasturibhairav Rasa,

  • Kasturibhushan rasa

  • BrihatDrakshasava

  • VidariGhritam

  • Kesharadivati

  • Chaturbhujrasa


Aromatic oral dental preparations mouth freshener paste powders

Aromatic Oral & Dental preparations Mouth Freshener/ Paste/Powders

  • Krishnadichuarnam

  • Jatipatradichurnam

  • Dantarogashanichurnam

  • Pathadhychurnam

  • Beejpur yoga

  • Mundyadichurnam

  • Kushthadi yoga

  • Sarivapatrachurnam


Facial complexion enhancer

Facial Complexion Enhancer

  • VatadiLepa

  • HaritaladiLepa

  • YavadiLepa

  • AnkolabijadiLepa

  • JatiphaldiLepa

  • ChandanadiLepa

  • AaranyatulsiLepa

  • Sharpunkhadilepa

  • Jatiphallepa

  • Lodhradilepa

  • Sarshapadilepa

  • Vatpatradilepa

  • KunkumadiLepa

52


Facial complexion enhancer1

Facial Complexion Enhancer


Hair care aromatic preparations

Hair Care Aromatic Preparations

  • Gokshuradilepa

  • Nilopalodyolepa

  • Bhringadilepa

  • Mansyadilepa

  • Ayorajadilepa

  • Madhukadilepa

  • Marsdeniatenacissima


Hair care aromatic preparations1

Hair Care Aromatic Preparations

  • Marichadilepa

  • Yashtyadilepa

  • Karanjalitailam

  • Raltailam

  • Vachaditailam

  • Madantailam

  • Marichadilepa

  • Vajravallilepa

  • Shunthyadilepa

  • Manhashivadilepa

  • Maharastripadilepa

  • Padmabijadi Yoga

  • Eladilepa

  • Karvirlepa

  • Karpuradilepa

  • Bhallatakadilepa

  • Marichadilepa

  • Vajravallilepa

  • Shunthyadilepa


Aromatic preparations in sexual disorders

Aromatic preparationsin Sexual disorders

  • Paninashaktailam

  • Rativallabhakhyatailam

  • Brahadbringarajtailam

  • Mahamashatailam

  • Gadhikaran yoga

  • Gadhikaranlepa

  • Sthulikaranlepa

  • Ashvagandhaditailam

  • Alambushadyatailam

  • Karisadyatailam

  • Ajaypaltailam

  • Palashbijtailam


Aromatic preparations methods and forms

Aromatic preparations – Methods and forms

  • Bath

  • Add 5-6 drops of E.O. to almond base oil and

  • add to your bath water.

    • Hand & Foot bath

  • Add 2-3 drops of E.O. to 5 ml. Pure almond oil/milk. Mix this with 200 ml. Warm water in a bowel and soak your hand or feet for 15-20 minutes.

  • Massage

  • Select any E.O. as per the condition add 5 to 20

  • ml. of almond oil and use for massage, this is

  • beneficial for massage of scalp and face but for

  • other parts or whole body massage use ginger or

  • coconut oil mixed with E.O.


  • Aromatic preparations methods and forms1

    Aromatic preparations – Methods and forms

    Massage

    Select any E.O. as per the condition add 5 to 20 ml. of almond oil and use for massage, this is beneficial for massage of scalp and face but for other parts or whole body massage use ginger or coconut oil mixed with E.O.

    Vaporisers

    Add 6-10 drops of selected E.O. to warm water in oil burner and light it, the generated vapors will give desired effects.


    Aromatic preparations methods and forms2

    Aromatic preparations – Methods and forms

    Inhalations

    Add 2-3 drops of E.O. to a bowl of boiling water, cover your head and the bowl with towel, the vaporized steam will act through respiration.

    Infusions

    Used for delicate aromatic herbs, leaves, flowers etc. Preparing an infusion is like making a cup of tea.

    The boiled water poured over an herb or mixture of herbs,

    it is covered to 10 to 15 minutes and then can be consuming.

    Decoctions

    This is used for tougher and more fibrous plant material. Instead of steeping in hot water, the plant material is boiled for a longer time to soften the hard woody material and release active constituents.


    Aromatic preparations methods and forms3

    Aromatic preparations – Methods and forms

    Tinctures

    A tincture is an alcohol and water extract used when the plants active chemicals are not very soluble in water. The shelf-life of tinctures is more.

    Macerations

    Dried aromatic plant material is covered in cool water and soaked overnight. The herb strained oil and the liquid is taken.

    Poultices and compresses

    To relieve local pain or overcome poultices and compresses are used.


    Aromatic material therapeutic uses

    Aromatic Material & Therapeutic Uses


    Aromatic material therapeutic uses1

    Aromatic Material & Therapeutic Uses


    Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

    Aromatic Material & Therapeutic Uses


    Aromatic material therapeutic uses2

    Aromatic Material & Therapeutic Uses


    Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

    Aromatic Material & Therapeutic Uses


    Aromatic material therapeutic uses3

    Aromatic Material & Therapeutic Uses


    Aromatic material therapeutic uses4

    Aromatic Material & Therapeutic Uses


    Aromatic material therapeutic uses5

    Aromatic Material & Therapeutic Uses


    Major chemical compounds found in essential oils and their therapeutic properties

    Major chemical compounds found in essential oils and their therapeutic properties


    Major chemical compounds found in essential oils and their therapeutic properties1

    Major chemical compounds found in essential oils and their therapeutic properties


    Safety information pertaining to essential oils

    Safety information pertaining to Essential Oils

    • Essential oils are powerful

    • Highly concentrated oils can be harmful if misused.

    • In general not to use undiluted essential oils on skin.

    • Some E.O. can cause adverse reactions, better to do a skin patch test prior to use for the first time.

    • Place a drop of the diluted E.O. on the inside of elbow, apply and bandage and wait for 24 hours to observe any reaction.


    Adverse reactions

    Adverse reactions

    • Irritation-rashes, mild itching, burning. Vanishes if oil is discontinued

    • Sensitization: More serious then irritation can cause charges into immune by stem. If used body repeatedly then the body shows sensitization in the form of rashes, allergic reaction, itching etc.

    • Photo sensitization – Photo toxicity


    Adverse reactions1

    Adverse reactions

    • E.O. causes a reaction to ultraviolet light. Reaction may be in the form of brown blotches to burning of the skin.

    • The condition may persists for a longer period and may reoccur if exposed to ultraviolet light again.

    • In pregnant condition Birch and winter green E.O. should be avoided as they are readily absorbed by the skin causing irritation.

    • In epileptic patients the strong odour E.O. should be avoided as they may initiate an epileptic attack.

    • eg.Camphor, Fennel, Rosmary etc.


    Some of the e o should be used cautiously

    SOME OF THE E.O. SHOULD BE USED CAUTIOUSLY

    • E.O. causing Sensitization

    • Balasm

    • Benzoin resinod and oil

    • Cinnamon bark oil

    • Inulagraveolens

    • Rue oil

    • Verbena

    • E.O. causing photo sensitization

      • Rue oil

      • Bergamot oil

    • E.O. with toxic action:

      • Wosmseed(chenopodium)

      • Tausy oil

    • E.O. with carcinoglenic action:

      • Calamus

      • Sassafoas


    How aroma works ayurvedic and contemporary understanding

    How Aroma works: Ayurvedic and contemporary understanding

    • Affects body’s physiological system like digestive, respiratory etc. directly or indirectly peppermint, ginger, sandalwood etc.

    • On skin – vasodilatation – producing warming effect.

    • Through olfactory route effects brain, sending electrica messages directly into the limbic system resulting impacts on memory, learning, emotions, thinking and feeling etc. most of the scents calm the nervous system, uplift spirits, creates euphoria or sedation etc.


    How aroma works

    How Aroma works

    • Mainly Aroma works through the sense of olfaction

    • Olfactory sense is highly developed in some mammals like dog, rabbits, etc. called Macro-somative

    • but in man it is not well developed called micro-somative.

    • The sense of smell contributes greatly to the joy of life.


    Nasal route

    Nasal route ……..


    Marmas its role

    Marmas –its Role

    PHANA MARMA

    SRINGATAKA MARMA


    The limbic area is responsible for emotions pleasure memory hormonal balance fear etc

    The limbic area is responsible for emotions, pleasure, memory, hormonal balance, fear, etc


    Scope and limitations of aroma therapy

    Scope And Limitations of Aroma Therapy

    • only Aroma therapy may not be a cure for all

    • it may not a complete therapy

    • It may be supplemented to other therapies

      • As add-on

      • Adjunct

        to conventional therapies


    Aroma therapy in ayurveda c oncept and therapeutic applications

    Thank you


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