Why Democracy?. Democracy. Rule by the People Direct / Indirect Federal System Confederal System. Majority Rule / Minority Rights Recognize Individual worth Promote Respect for the Law Promote the Public Good. Constitutional Convention 1787.
Majority Rule / Minority Rights
Recognize Individual worth
Promote Respect for the Law
Promote the Public Good
* Magna Carta
a. rule of law
b. bicameral (two chamber)
a. limited monarchy (executive)
b. cannot imprison people without reason
c. force citizens to house soldiers
d. no military rule in times of peace
a. Monarch (executive) cannot rule
without consent of legislature
b. Right to Petition
c. Free elections
d. Rule with consent of people it governed
a. no executive
b. no currency
c. no judiciary
d. no ability to tax
e. no ability to regulate commerce
Ratification and amendment process
a. bicameral legislature
b. strong executive
c. strong judiciary
d. direct elections for one house/appointment for the other house
e. levy taxes, make laws for nation, regulate trade
New Jersey Plan
a. weak executive
b. unicameral legislature/represented =
c. Representatives chosen from state
d. supreme court appointed by legislature.
e. levy taxes, regulate trade
Called for a stronger state government with representatives coming from state legislature.
a. one elected and based on population
b. one appointed by House and = representation.
Both Houses must approve legislation, by a majority of votes to become a law
problem was they wanted slaves to be counted for taxation and not representation
Slaves would be counted 3/5 of a person for both purposes
a. control of the press
b. better represented
c. beat the Anti-Federalist to the draw
a. won the argument for a Bill of Rights only after ratification of the Constitution.
Article 1, section 9, says what powers that the federal government does not have.
Separation of Powers
No one branch has too much power
Checks and Balances
Divides the power within the government.
Changing formally very difficult, so informal ways to make changes developed
a. 2/3 vote from both houses of Congress (all done this way). No presidential veto possible
b. Constitutional Convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of the states Serious implications for this one
a. ¾ of state legislatures
1. all but 21st amendment done this way.
2. most state legislatures ratify with a simple majority, but some require a supermajority….(eg. 3/5, 2/3, ¾)
1) 21st amendment done this way
2) A more directly democratic way: people elect delegates who state their positions on the proposed amendment. Citizens are in essences casting their votes on the amendment.
Time limits for ratification: Generally 7 years
Exclusive Powers of the National Government
Powers Shared by National and State Government
Shared, or "concurrent" powers include:
Exclusive Powers of State Governments
Powers reserved to state governments include: