Week 3 blogs censorship pornography and gambling
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1. Week 3 - Blogs, Censorship , Pornography and Gambling. Comprehension Objectives. Describe the nature of Web 2.0 Blogs Definition of a blog? Types of blogs Typical features of a blog Characteristics of successful blogs Internet resources about blogging . Activity Objectives.

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Week 3 blogs censorship pornography and gambling

1

Week 3 - Blogs, Censorship, Pornography and Gambling


Comprehension objectives

Comprehension Objectives

  • Describe the nature of Web 2.0

  • Blogs

    • Definition of a blog?

    • Types of blogs

    • Typical features of a blog

    • Characteristics of successful blogs

    • Internet resources about blogging


Activity objectives

Activity Objectives

  • Plan a blog

  • Set up an account at Blogger.com and create, publish, and edit a blog

  • Create labels and add a category archive to a blog

  • Insert a poll onto a blog

  • Place a link list on a blog


What is web 2 0

What Is Web 2.0?

  • Was there a Web 1.0?

  • How did Web 2.0 develop?

  • What’s the essence of Web 2.0?

    • Reliance upon users to create content, using

      • Social media and sharing sites

      • Wikis

      • Tags to categorize content (folksonomy)


How does web 2 0 make money

How Does Web 2.0 Make Money?

  • Heavy reliance upon advertising, but

  • Other methods possible, e.g. threadless


Blogs

Blogs

Topic List

Posts

Archives

Blogroll

Subscription Links

Comments


Types of blogs

Types of Blogs

  • Personal Blogs

  • Political Blogs

  • Social awareness Blogs

  • Media blogs

  • Corporate blogs


Successful blogs

Successful Blogs

  • Update frequently and stay on topic

  • Maintain a professional look

  • Be innovative

  • Connect with others

  • Become indexed


Planning a blog

Planning a Blog

  • What’s your Topic?

  • What will you call your blog?

  • What’s your URL?

  • How often will you post?

  • Will you accept comments/posts written by others?


Setting up a blog

Setting Up A Blog

  • For personal sites, use a free host

    • Blogger (www.blogger.com)

    • WordPress (www.wordpress.com)

    • LiveJournal (www.livejournal.com)

  • Commercial sites may want more flexibility by using a paid site


Use blogger com

Use Blogger.com


Name and theme your blog

Name and Theme Your Blog


Create your first post

Create Your First Post


Edit previous posts

Edit Previous Posts


Create labels and a category archive

Create Labels and a Category Archive


Insert a poll and link list

Insert a Poll and Link List

Add Gadget

Brings Up This List


Internet resources that educate people about blogging

Internet Resources That Educate People About Blogging

  • Daily Blog Tips

    • (www.dailyblogtips.com)

  • Tips for New Bloggers

    • (www.tips-for-new-bloggers.blogspot.com)

  • Blogging Tips

    • (www.bloggingtips.com) How often will you post?

  • YouTube Blogger Help (www.youtube.com/user/BloggerHelp)


Censorship

CENSORSHIP

  • What are the most censored networks in the World?


Week 3 blogs censorship pornography and gambling

Intensity of Internet Censorship

Source: OpenNet Initiative(ONI)


Advantages for society

Advantages for society

  • Protection from dangerous concepts

  • Violence

  • pornography


Advantages for gov t

Advantages for gov’t

  • Control the public opinions

  • Stop collaboration of undesirables

  • Limit publics control of speech

    • Think what happened in the middle east?


Negatives of online censorship

Negatives of online Censorship


Negatives

Negatives


Negatives1

Negatives


Negatives2

Negatives

----Cannot distinguish domestic situation.

----Can not learn more about other countries.


Negatives3

Negatives

  • Tiananmen Square protests of 1989


Negatives4

Negatives


Censorship on the internet of china

Censorship on the internet of China

  • No political discussion

  • The government screen sensitive topic

  • All information carried out by the government

  • The system moniter people’s talking


Twitter facebook and youtube in china

Twitter,Facebook and Youtube in China


The raise developing of use weibo renren qq in china

The raise developing of use Weibo,Renren,QQ in China


Theory

Theory

  • What is censorship?

  • What are the benefits?

  • What are the costs?

  • What are the relevant theories?


Theory1

Theory

  • What is censorship?

    • Spam Filters?

    • Mother turning off TV programs for kids?


Theory2

Theory

  • What are the benefits?

    • Stabilizing society?

    • Strengthening political power/vested interests?

    • Net safety? Limiting porn? Child protection?


Theory3

Theory

  • What are the costs?

    • Implementation costs

    • Type 1 errors (e.g. spam in your inbox)

    • Type 2 errors (e.g. “good” mail in your spambox)


Technologies of censorship

Technologies of Censorship

  • Commonly used technologies

    • IP blocking

    • TCP/IP packet filtering

    • TCP/IP content filtering

    • DNS filtering

    • HTTP proxy filtering

    • Denial of service


Technologies of censorship1

Technologies of Censorship

  • The Blocking Techniques of the Great Firewall of China

    • Shielding the domain names as sensitive words

    • Shielding the IP of the domain names

    • Interfering with the DNS analysis


Technologies of censorship2

Technologies of Censorship

  • Anti-Blocking Techniques

    • SSL encryption against the key words censorship

    • Escaping the IP shielding by changing IP for websites

    • The use of foreign DNS Lookup service

    • Use “Tor” to keep away from DNS interference


Pornography and the net

Pornography and the net


Statistics on the pornography industry

Statistics on the pornography industry

  • It is estimated that the porn industry is worth $57 billion.

  • This comprises of: Adult videos ($20 billion)

    • Escort Services ($11 billion)

    • Magazines ($ 7.5 billion)

    • Sex Clubs ($ 5 billion)

    • Phone Sex ($ 4.5 billion)

    • Cable & Pay Per View ($ 2.5 billion)

    • Internet ($ 2.5 billion)

  • The US porn industry generates more revenue then ABC, CBS and NBC networks put together (6.2 billion)


  • Statistics on online pornography

    Statistics on online pornography

    • Websites containing pornographic content make up for 12% of total websites, that is 4.2 million websites.

    • 25% of daily search engine requests are related to pornography.

    • 8% of emails sent daily contain pornographic content.

    • Gnutella (P2P application) has 116 thousand daily requests for child pornography.

    • In September 2003 more than 32 million individuals visited pornographic websites.

    • According to Dr. Weiss (2000) sex is the most searched topic on the Internet.


    What implications does this have on your organisation

    What implications does this have on your organisation?

    • 30% of Web surfing is not work related.

    • 70% of pornography downloads occur between 9am-5pm (SexTracker)

    • 20% of employees examined by the Secure Computing Corporation (2005) visited pornographic websites while at work.


    Pornography by definition

    Pornography by definition

    • What is pornography?

    • Is all content of a pornographic nature illegal?


    Pornography by definition1

    Pornography by definition

    • The word pornography has evolved considerably from the Greek language. In Late Greek the word 'pornographos' was used to describe writing about prostitutes and encounters with prostitutes (Dictionary.com 2004).

    • The Merriam Webster Dictionary of Law (1996) defines pornography as material that depicts erotic behaviour and is intended to cause sexual excitement.

    • The Webster New World Encyclopedia (1992) defines pornography as obscene literature, pictures, photos or films of no academic merit, intended only to arouse sexual desires.


    Pornography by definition2

    Pornography by definition

    • The Webster’s New World Encyclopedia and the Merrian Webster Dictionary of Law focus on different themes.

    • The Webster’s New World Encyclopedia focuses on “obscene” content which is the lowest form of pornography.

    • While the Merrian Webster Dictionary of Law focus on “erotic” content which is seen by some psychologists more acceptable form of pornography.

    • The problem is that there are many forms and definitions of pornography.


    Pornography as an online risk

    Pornography as an online risk

    Access to pornography can pose the following

    problems for an organisation:

    • Legal liability

    • Loss of production to non-work related content

    • Loss of bandwidth.


    Pornography as an online risk1

    Pornography as an online risk

    1. Legal liability

    Employees can be directly or indirectly liable for

    sexual harassment based on a hostile work

    environment.

    • Direct liability is classified when the employee’s supervisors sends pornographic content that is perceived to be offensive by the employee.

    • If the wrongful conduct is directed at the employer as he/she is responsible for the conduct of the supervisor (Overly 2002).


    Pornography as an online risk2

    Pornography as an online risk

    • Indirect liability results when the employer fails to restrict or correct activity that creates a hostile working environment.

    • This is commonly what happens to employer’s who do not have a content filtering solution as well as an effective acceptable use policy (AUP) in place.

      It is necessary to take the right steps to prevent such

      liability.


    Pornography as an online risk3

    Pornography as an online risk

    2. Loss of productivity

    • Around 20% of employees view content of pornographic nature during work hours.

    • One in five men and one in eight women admitted to using their work’s Internet as the main channel for accessing sexually explicit material (Secure Computing Corporation 2005).


    Pornography as an online risk4

    Pornography as an online risk

    A survey conducted by Valt.com revealed

    how often employees used the corporate

    Internet facilities to surf non work related

    sites (Witzke 2002):

    • 34.9% claimed “a few times a week”

    • 38.1% claimed “a few times a day”

    • 14.6% claimed “I surf the Web constantly”

    • 12.4% claimed “never, that’s unethical”.


    Pornography as an online risk5

    Pornography as an online risk

    3. Loss of bandwidth

    • In some organisations network surveys have found

      that P2P file sharing networks (containing pornography) have been responsible for consuming up to 80% of the bandwidth.

    • This can have a crippling effect on the networking resources.


    Content filtering solutions

    Content filtering solutions

    • What can be done to prevent unwanted access to pornographic content?

    • What control mechanisms can be put into place to limit access to pornographic content?


    Content filtering solutions1

    Content filtering solutions

    The following two control mechanisms can be put into

    place to limit users from accessing pornographic

    content these are:

    • Content filtering

    • Implementation of Acceptable Use Policy

      (AUP).


    Content filtering solutions2

    Content filtering solutions

    • Content filtering is an active control mechanism which physically restricts user from accessing pornographic content.

    • Content filtering parameters are setup to enforce the AUP of an organisation.

    • Content filtering allows an organisation to determine exactly what content will be tolerated and what will be restricted.


    Content filtering

    Content Filtering

    Four commonly used forms of content

    filtering are:

    • Keyword filtering

    • URL blocking

    • Content rating systems

    • Walled garden approach


    Content filtering1

    Content Filtering

    1. Keyword filtering

    This system uses a list of objectionable

    terms, blocking pages and e-mails containing words

    that are considered to be indecent in nature.

    This is the least sophisticated but requires careful

    consideration when setting up.

    Problems are created when words that are similar to

    those that are meant to be blocked like “Sussex” are

    blocked. The context that the words are used in are

    not taken into consideration.


    Content filtering2

    Content Filtering

    2. URL blocking (Website blocking)

    Software filtering companies maintain databases of

    unethical Websites which are often sorted into

    different categories allowing user to filter out content

    they see as unnecessary in the work environment.

    This updates the filtering software and prevents

    access to such Websites.

    Unfortunately this approach requires constant

    updating from both the software vendor and the users

    of this filtering solution.


    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • In society today pornography has a strong presence, it is important to identify this and not just ignore it.

    • Only once we understand the size and the online presence of the problem can we try to minimise the effects it has on the work place and online environment.

    • It is necessary to have an active approach as well as a passive approach to restrict access to online pornography.


    References

    References

    • Dictionary.com: definition of pornography. 2004. [Online]. Available WWW: http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=pornography (Accessed 15/05/05).

    • Hart et al. 2002. Structural development of Internet self-regulation: Case study of the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA). Info 4 (5): 39-55.

    • Lectric Law Library Lexicon on Obscenity. 2002. [Online]. Available WWW: http://www.lectlaw.com/def2/o002.htm. (Accessed 21/09/04).

    • Merrrian Webster Dictionary of Law: definition of pornography. 1996. [Online]. Available WWW: http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=pornography. (Accessed 19/09/04).


    References1

    References

    • Overly, M. 2002. Email, adult content and employment law: Reducing liability with filtering and policy tools. [Online]. Available WWW: http://www.lonetree.com/nospam/Legal_Liability.pdf (Accessed 10/05/05).

    • The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition: definition erotic. 2000. [Online]. Available WWW: http://www.answers.com/topic/erotic (accessed 25/05/05

    • Witzke. 2002. IntelliBridge Tech Update. [Online]. Available WWW: http://www.intellibridgellc.com/pdf/NewsletterJune.July.2002.pdf (Accessed 25/03/05).


    Gambling

    Gambling

    • With gambling around the world being so accessible via the internet it is necessary to know that where there is gambling there are higher chances for corruption and deceit.


    Background themes

    Background themes

    • Canada & Australia: common principles

      • Federal systems, state/provincial authority over gambling, varied approaches

      • Historical nexus between gambling legalisation & charitable/welfare funding

      • Strong emphasis on regulation, social issues

    • Differences

      • Australian gambling legalised since 19th century

      • Primarily government-run, prohibition on private ownership until 1970-80s

      • Privatisation, commercialisation introduced market imperatives, problem gambling (machines, casinos)

      • 2000-1 per capital loss $942, almost 4% HDI

      • 80-85% gamble regularly, 2.1% have problems


    Regulatory rationale

    Regulatory rationale

    • The traditional role of government to regulate

      • Commercial gambling as a privilege, not a right

      • Control over market entry, probity of operators

      • Crime prevention, consumer protection

    • To generate revenue

      • replacing illegal activities that incur policing costs

      • revenue for welfare, public infrastructure

      • increasing leisure and recreation facilities

      • job creation (= ‘illusory” – PC 1999)

    • To mediate social costs

      • perception that gambling is a questionable activity

      • problem gambling, social harm

    • Emerging challenges to national sovereignty

      • Global telecommunications technology as the catalyst for change


    Factors that influence gambling policy

    Factors that influence gambling policy

    • The economic power of industry

      • Revenue imperative, ‘invisible’ form of taxation

      • Inter-regional rivalry

        • leakage of gambling expenditure

        • investment opportunities

      • Special treatment for some industries

      • Growth is supply driven (not consumer demand)

    • Policy learning

      • learning from other jurisdictions

      • from past policy failures

      • from research, community backlash

    • Relevant policy instruments, mechanisms

      • choice of policy options/design, convenient policy process


    The gambling regulatory cycle

    The Gambling Regulatory Cycle

    1. Regulatory liberalisation

    3. Community concern, industry pressure, information can lead to regulatory reform

    2. Proliferation of gambling

    & impacts


    What works lessons from oz

    What works: lessons from Oz

    • Casinos:

      • Control over market entry, regional monopolies

      • Licensing & regulation of gaming staff

      • On-site 24 hr government inspectorate

      • Parallel surveillance systems, override on CCTV

      • Police squads, undercover, ban on criminals

      • Auditing of cash transactions

    • Gaming machines (clubs, hotels):

      • Venue licences, restricted to certain venue types

      • Licensing of key staff

      • Centralised monitoring systems, auditing

    • What doesn’t:

      • Proliferation of gaming machines

      • Wagering & sportsbetting:

        • inferior regulatory standards, fragmented, inconsistent


    Lessons from australia cont d

    Lessons from Australia (cont’d)

    • Crime prevention

      • Deterrence, detection, sanctions

      • Proactive policing at minimal public cost

        • Internal casino/venue crime

          • hidden ownership

          • theft, counterfeiting

          • cheating (card counting)

        • Community crime

          • Crime displacement

          • Problem gambling related crimes = inadequate data

        • Money laundering

          • Star City scandal, regulatory reforms

    • Prosecution, enforcement

      • Patrons, staff

        • Criminal prosecution, licence withdrawal automatic


    Crime prevention cont d

    Crime prevention (cont’d)

    • Licence withdrawal rarely used against venues

      • but publication of breaches, sanctions

    • Problem gambling crimes

      • tendency of the courts is to impose jail sentence

      • problem gambling is accepted in rare cases as ‘mitigating circumstances’, leniency in sentencing

      • mandatory counselling not successful

    • Liability for problem gambling

      • Tendency has been to find individual liability eg

        • the Katoomba-Reynolds, Lane Cove cases

        • the O’Malley’s case

        • the Star City case

    • Self-regulation, commercial approach is deficient

      • evidence of social costs/problems from PC’s national inquiry, state research


    Week 3 blogs censorship pornography and gambling

    • Problem gambling – regulatory reforms

      • Gaming machines = major source of problems

        • 10-14% of regular machine gamblers have problems

        • 2.1% gamblers generate 33% of total gambling revenue

        • NSW: 104,000 machines in clubs & hotels

          • 2.55% = highest national prevalence of problem gambling

        • Western Australia: no machines outside Perth casino

          • 0.70% = lowest national prevalence of problem gambling

      • Restrictions on consumer access

      • Away from shopping centres

      • ‘Cap’ number of machines (venue, region, state)

      • CIS requirements – demonstrate community benefit

      • Consumer information, signage, brochures

      • Controls over advertising and promotion

        • No external advertising, not to focus on ‘winning’, etc

      • Controlling the gaming environment

        • Lighting, ATMs, gaming not to dominate venue, multiple facilities

      • Controlling game features and design


    Internet gambling regulatory issues

    Internet gambling - regulatory issues

    • Legislative and regulatory inconsistencies between states/territories

      • inadequacies of regulation, loopholes

      • detection, control of illegal activities

    • Integrity of the games & consumer protection

      • who sets the standards? are they enforceable?

    • Social impacts (eg underage gambling, problem gambling)

    • Is prohibition a viable option?

      • Commonwealth response: prohibition of gaming, proliferation of wagering/sportsbetting

      • who will enforce a ban?

      • limitations of national sovereignty, state laws

    • Disputes with USA & other nations are likely over sportsbetting/wagering


    Developments in the uk

    Developments in the UK

    • Principle of ‘non-stimulation’, restricted markets until 1990s

      • Privately owned National Lottery introduced commercial industry practices, uneven playing field

      • Internet bookmakers moved offshore to tax havens

    • Gaming Review 2001 (Budd Report)

      • proposes major liberalisation of gambling

        • introduction of gaming machines

      • in theory, growth is to be balanced by responsible gambling policies

      • Regulatory regimes not defined

      • Currently subject to industry lobbying


    The way forward

    The way forward

    • Avoid policy lag

      • policy learning - be proactive, not reactive

      • avoid trend to devolve initiative to industry

    • A coordinated policy using all regulatory resources

      • review of legislation, range of regulatory options

    • Needs a ‘whole of industry’ approach, consistency (not ad hoc, incrementalism)

    • Collaboration, policy input by community groups , local authorities

      • consultation re licensing criteria

      • more specific regulations, application of appropriate sanctions

      • clarify offences & liability


    Blueprint for gambling regulation

    Blueprint for gambling regulation

    • Separate structure of institutions involved

    • Allocation of roles and functions: who should do it? How should it be done?

      • policy development by parliament

      • control of all gambling by independent regulator

      • enforcement separate from policy & control

      • adjudication shared by control authority & courts

      • fund administration by independent trust, board

    • Defined,accountable processes for implementation and enforcement

    • Avoid conflicting principles & objectives

    • Open, consultative & informed processes

    • The guiding principle = the broader public interest


    Diversity of cybercrime

    Diversity of cybercrime

    • There are hundreds of examples of alleged cheats and crimes related to internet gambling

    • For purposes of this presentation, we focus on few case studies indexing the diversity of criminal conduct

    • Cheating (3): PokerSmoke; HoldemGenius; PartyPoker (JJProdigy)

    • Collusion (3): FullTiltPoker; AbsolutePoker; UltimateBet

    • Malware and botnets (2): CheckRaised; BrotherSoft

    • Software exploitation (2): Cryptologic; Texas Hold ‘Em

    • Fraud (2): MaxLotto; India Lottery Scam

    • Money laundering (3): BetWWTS; Giordano; Uvari

    • DDoS attacks (2): FullTiltPoker; TitanPoker

    • Cyberextortion (3): BetCris; Canbet; Multibet

    • Phishing and identity theft (4): Euromillion Espana; PartyPoker; Lucky7Lottery; Massachusetts State Lottery


    Approach

    Approach

    • Internet crime is rational

    • Structured to enhance successful outcomes

    • Structured to manage problems of social control

      • Opportunity

      • Relations with victims

      • Detection

      • Prosecution

      • Sanction

    • Different types of organizations emerge to survive in the digital environment

      • Techno-nomads

      • Digital Associates

      • Criminal Assemblages


    Cheating techno nomads

    Cheating & Techno Nomads

    • AI programs

    • Hands-free, robotic poker player

    • Plays at level of a professional player in tournaments

    • Sophisticated Decision Engine

    • Advanced Neural Network Technology

    • Memorized opponents’ game styles, recognized betting patterns, calculated pot and hand odds – on auto-pilot!


    Cheating techno nomads1

    Cheating & Techno Nomads

    • Similar technology to PokerSmoke

    • Used in hundreds of online poker rooms to increase edge over other players

    • Fully functional website

    • Regular software upgrades

    • Online tutorials

    • Customer support


    Collusion digital associates

    Collusion & Digital Associates

    • Tokwiro and Kahwanake Commission

    • Player vigilance

    • NioNio’s win rate: $300,000 in 3,000 hands

    • Ten SD above average = winning one million dollar lottery six consecutive times

    • Nio Nio core of organized network of 19 super accounts using 88 virtual persons to cheat players for 43 months – May 04 – Jan 08.


    Collusion digital associates ctd

    Collusion & Digital Associates (ctd)

    • Software code allowed systemic cheating and theft – take $25 mill US

    • Corporate Shell Game: Logic, Excapsa, Tokwiro, Blast Off Ltd.

    • 3 Super Accounts Connected to W.S.P winner and former founder of UltimateBet

    • (aka. allegedly Russ Hamilton)

    • Detection, Prosecution, Penalty


    Other digital associates

    Other Digital Associates

    • Business crimes

      • Withholding winning revenue from players

      • Fraud by fabricating phantom websites and malware to deceive would be clients

      • Identity theft

    • Employee/workplace crimes

      • hacking into corporate data bases

      • selling gaming information, software, and algorithmic programs [BetonSports, Cryptologic]

      • small-scale organized crime

      • money laundering through botnet manipulations and chip dumping

      • online betting fraud [India 2007]


    Identity fraud crime networks

    Identity Fraud & Crime Networks

    Euromillion Espana

    • Combined confidence cheating with identity theft

    • Multinational in scope

    • Valued at $200 mill.

    • OC groups in Spain, France, Australia, UK

    • Traditional tactics (social eng, fake docs)

    • Technological tactics (emails, fake sites)

    • Deceptive attack [tricked by fraudulent messages]

    • Malware attack [use of malicious code to retrieve personal information]

    • DNS attack [manipulate IP addresses to send personal information]

    • 300 members of crime networks eventually arrested by undercover operation

    • Yet crime networks remained regenerative


    Identity fraud crime networks1

    Identity Fraud & Crime Networks

    Phishing Site Screenshot

    • Well-organized phishing scam

    • Created perfect replica of Party Poker site

    • Hosted site on their own illegal servers

    • Sent spoofed email warning of Impact of new gambling law onPartyPoker users

    • Link to cloned site

    • Log in w/ personalinformation

      • ID theft; playerimpersonation;playing credit theft; digital data black marketing


    Cyberextortion crime networks

    Cyberextortion & Crime Networks

    • Between 2000 and 2006, hundreds of gambling sites targeted for hundreds of millions of dollars

    • British bookmakers alone in 2004 lost over $70 mill. to cyberextortion groups

    • DDoS attacks; digital shakedowns

    • Network Organization – organizers; extenders; executors

    • Lateral networked structures:

      • regenerative characteristics

      • minimum personal contacts

      • virtual recruitment via online mediums

    - dispersed automatic hierarchy of authority

    - top-down compartmentalization operation

    - fluid flexible modus operandi


    Money laundering crime networks

    Money Laundering & Crime Networks

    Gambling sites as laundering enterprises

    • Used shell corporations & bank accounts worldwide [Central America, Caribbean, and Hong Kong] to clean illicit capital

    • playwithal.com

      • 40,000 customer accounts were used to move money through gambling sites to offshore banks

    • Family affair

      • Giordano (organizer)

      • son-in-law (controller)

      • Wife & daughter (finances)

    • Other members

      • Clerks; runners; enforcers


    Legal challenges

    Legal Challenges

    • Revise standard laws

      • Up-to-date technically

      • Enact legal definitions for virtual environments

      • Harmonize definitions within nation states

    • Harmonize Legal Matters Across Jurisdictions

      • Legal definitions

      • Licensing agreements

      • Evidence Admissibility

      • On-site audits/inspections


    Week 3 blogs censorship pornography and gambling

    Now?

    • We continue to discuss your first assignment. Take this as an opportunity to talk to your lecturer about any concerns that you may have


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