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Chapter 7. Personality, Lifestyle, and Self-Concept. Personality, Lifestyle, and Self-Concept. Snapshot from the Marketplace. Body image is an inseparable component of our self concept. An ideal of beauty varies cross-culturally and over time.

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7


Lifestyle, and


Personality, Lifestyle,

and Self-Concept

Snapshot from the marketplace
Snapshot from the Marketplace

  • Body image is an inseparable component of our self concept.

  • An ideal of beauty varies cross-culturally and over time.

  • Since we compare ourselves to idealized images depicted in ads, marketers use such a tactic to create sufficient temporary dissatisfaction to motivate us to act.

What is personality
What Is Personality?

  • The sum total of an individual’s inner psychological attributes

  • Distinctive and enduring patterns of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize each individual's adaptation to the situation of his or her life

  • static.

What is personality1
What Is Personality?

  • Properties that characterize personality:

    • Personality is unique.

    • Personality is consistentacross diverse circumstances.

    • Personality is not static.

Diversity of personality theories
Diversity of Personality Theories

  • Psychological literature provides a large number of personality theories.

  • Our focus here is on 3 theories:

    • Freudian theory of personality

    • Neo-Freudian theory of personality

    • Trait theory of personality

Freudian psychoanalytic personality theory
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

  • Strong emphasis on biological & sexual motivation

  • Personality is a result of interaction & conflict between:

    • The Id: pleasure principle

    • The Superego: social, moral, & ethical inhibitions

    • The Ego: mediator between the id’s impulses & superego’s restrictions

    • Personality develops as we progress through a sequence of psychosexual stages during infancy.

Freudian psychoanalytic personality theory cont d
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory (cont’d)

  • Anxiety plays a major role in personality development.

  • Freud discerned 3 types of anxiety:

    • Reality anxiety: fear of tangible danger

    • Neurotic anxiety: fear of punishment for instinctual gratification

    • Moral anxiety: fear of our own conscience

Freudian psychoanalytic personality theory cont d1
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory (cont’d)

  • Defense mechanisms to overcome anxiety, examples include:

    • Repression

    • Rationalization

    • Regression

    • Projection

    • Aggression

    • Withdrawal

Marketing applications of freudian theory
Marketing Applications of Freudian Theory

  • Ads frequently address the id by emphasizing the pleasure and self-indulgent aspects of product or service offerings.

  • Promotions address the ego via free offers as well as by employing leisure, freedom, escape, and fantasy appeals.

  • Promotional appeals address the superego by emphasizing social amenities, ethics, and tradition.

Personality videos
Personality Videos

  • NFL Custom Shop Personality

  • Doritos Personality

Neo freudian personality theory
Neo-Freudian Personality Theory

  • Social variables rather than biological instincts underlie personality formation

  • Four theories of Freud’s disciples & their emphases:

    • Adler: overcoming real & perceived inferiorities; pursuit of superiority & perfection

    • Horney: dealing with anxiety

    • Fromm: escape from loneliness; seeking meaningful relationships

    • Sullivan: interpersonal relationships

Marketing applications of neo freudian theory
Marketing Applications of Neo-Freudian Theory

  • Ads employing Neo-Freudian theory emphasize social relationships and human interaction.

  • Promotional appeals frequently depict warm interaction between individuals in a social or a family setting.

  • Appeals may also emphasize the role of products as enhancers of positive interpersonal relationships with others or protectors against offending others.

  • Cohen’s C-A-D scale: a paradigm that classifies people based on their degree of compliance, aggression, and detachment

Trait theory of personality
Trait Theory of Personality

  • Classifies people according to their dominant characteristics or identifiable traits

  • Theory assumptions:

    • Traits are identifiable and limited in number.

    • Traits are relatively stable.

    • Traits can be measured via behavioral indicators.

    • People with similar traits behave similarly.

  • Measuring personality traits:

    • Standard clinical personality tests vs. tailor-made & modified tests

Trait theory of personality cont d
Trait Theory of Personality (cont’d)

  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: this instrument measures traits by employing 4 scales:

    • Extroversion/introversion

    • Sensate/Intuitive

    • Thinking/feeling

    • Judging/perceiving

  • Measurement results in 16 personality types, representing a person’s behavioral tendencies on the above 4 traits.

Marketing applications of trait theory
Marketing Applications of Trait Theory

  • Marketers search for correlations between sets of specific personality traits and consumer behavior patterns.

  • Correlations can occur in the form of one or more personality traits and such specific tendencies as product purchase, brand choice, retail store selection, or media habits.


  • The objective is to assess consumers’ lifestyles so that meaningful consumer typologies can be identified.

  • Profiles can be obtained through AIO Inventories (activities, interests, and opinions surveys)

Marketing applications of psychographics
Marketing Applications of Psychographics

  • VALS segmentation approach defines 8 market segments; each has a unique combination of psychological and demographic attributes.

    • VALS segments the market based on both consumers’ primary motivations and resources/innovation.

    • Primary motivations are ideals, achievements, and self-expression.

    • Resources range from minimal to abundant and cover individuals’ psychological, physical, demographic, and material means.

Vals configuration of consumer categories

Self-Expression Motivated






Abundant ResourcesHigh Innovation






Minimal ResourcesLow Innovation


VALS Configuration of Consumer Categories


Marketing applications of vals
Marketing Applications of VALS

  • VALS helps marketers:

    • Identify and select target markets

    • Develop effective media plans to reach specific target markets

    • Create ads and appeals that match the attributes of desirable target segments

Applications to consumer behavior research
Applications to Consumer Behavior Research Consumer Behavior Research?

  • Need for cognition – a tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking

  • Locus of control – significant personality variable in psychology

    • External locus of control – ascribe the influences on their lives to luck, fate, chance, other people, or strong forces they cannot overcome

    • Internal locus of control – tend to attribute the influences on their lives to forces such as their own skills that are within their control

    • Differ in attentiveness to information present in the environment and seeking of additional relevant information

Q 4 define self concept
Q. 4. Define Self-Concept. Consumer Behavior Research?

Self concept
Self-Concept Consumer Behavior Research?

  • The sum total of our beliefs and feelings about our self

  • An organized configuration of perceptions of the self, which are available to awareness

Interactive sources of selfhood
Interactive Sources of Selfhood Consumer Behavior Research?

  • Significant others

    • individuals with whom we interact in various kinds of role relations, are crucial in the formation of our self.

  • Materials and objects

    • the physical environment that we rely on for survival and the technologies that support and mediate our social relations affect the development of our self.

  • Ideas, beliefs and values

    • ideology and religious beliefs influence the way we perceive and respond to our social and physical environment

Exhibit 10 1 the relational self
Exhibit 10.1 Consumer Behavior Research? The Relational Self

Q 6 define self esteem and self efficacy
Q. 6. Define Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy. Consumer Behavior Research?

Self esteem and self efficacy
Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy Consumer Behavior Research?

  • Self-Esteem –the pattern of beliefs an individual has about self-worth

  • One’s subjective self-evaluation developed from personal experiences of success or failure, interactions with others, maturation, heredity, and social learning.

  • High self-esteem is related to spending; low self-esteem is related to compulsive and addictive behaviors

  • Self-Efficacy -- people’s beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives

  • Self-efficacy should vary cross-culturally.

Self concept1
Self-Concept… Consumer Behavior Research?

  • multifaceted

    • includes a collection of images, activities, goals, feelings, roles, traits and values

  • Multiplicity of identity indicates that selfhood is a collection of diverse but related self-perceptions – the self includes a multiplicity of things that people are to themselves and to one another

Self concept is multi faceted
Self-Concept is Multi-Faceted Consumer Behavior Research?

  • I-self

    • the active observer, the knower, or the information processor

  • Me-self

    • the known, observed, and constructed self-image

  • Looking-glass self

  • Image congruence hypothesis

    • self-concept is reinforced as positive responses from others support consumption activities

  • Extended self

    • external objects to which we are emotionally attached and that we consider a part of ourselves

Self concept depends on situations and motives
Self-Concept Depends on Consumer Behavior Research? Situations and Motives

  • Working or activated self-concept

    • aspects that are most relevant in a particular social setting or situation

  • People selectively retrieve different aspects of their self-concepts depending on goals and motives.

  • Sometimes consumers may contrive to use products to trigger aspects of the self.

Self concept is changeable
Self-Concept is Changeable Consumer Behavior Research?

  • Self-concept is flexible and changeable

  • Consumers’ self-concepts are especially dynamic during certain role transitions

  • Role transitions and self-esteem

    • the degree to which people have a positive attitude towards themselves

  • Role transitions are marked by changes in consumption patterns

Self concept2
Self Concept model?

  • intrapersonal – inner, processes

    • including information processing and motivation

  • interpersonal processes -- including perception, interpersonal influence and reaction to others’ feedback

The dynamic self concept intrapersonal processes
The Dynamic Self-Concept model?Intrapersonal Processes

  • Self-narrative

    • stories that arecoherent, context sensitive accounts of experiences that provide a sense of personal continuity in time and space

  • Self-relevant information

    • internalized self-schemas that represent a reference value or standard of comparison for new information

  • Self-gifts

    • frequently carry messages about identify and self-distinctiveness, which contributes to self-esteem

Intrapersonal processes
Intrapersonal Processes model?

  • Body image

    • Commonly defined as a mental construction, embedded in self-schema that can deviate substantially from a person’s objective physical characteristics

  • Desired selves

    • what a person thinks he or she really can and would like to be

Interpersonal processes
Interpersonal Processes model?

  • Self is a reference point for evaluating others, selecting friends and directing interactions with others

  • Consumption communicates socially shared meanings about identity

  • High self-monitors

    • concerned with being consistent with their conception of how people behave in a particular situation

  • Low self-monitors

    • concerned with being themselves in various situations

  • Consumers may use goods to close the gap between actual and possible selves

The self concept
The Self-Concept model?

  • 5 original concepts of self: real-self, ideal self, self-image, apparent-self, & reference-group self

  • Other concepts of self:

    • Extended-self

    • Possible-self

Self concept3
Self-Concept model?

  • Defined as an organized configuration of perceptions of the self, which are available to awareness

    • Perceptions people have about themselves

    • An active configuration that influences intrapersonal and interpersonal processes

    • It is not distinct from society and culture

    • Role transition is a major change in the rights, duties, and responsibilities expected of an individual by a social group

Self concept and social roles
Self Concept and Social Roles model?

  • At different times, we assume diverse social roles such as that of spouse, parent, employer, or student.

  • While in a specific role, we are often concerned about the impression we make on others.

Self concept and consumption
Self-Concept and Consumption model?

  • Consumers attempt to purchase products that match their personality and self concept.

  • Products we own or use serve as social symbols designed to communicate to others who we are.

  • Self-product congruence refers to our tendency to select and use products that match aspects of self.

Stability of the self concept
Stability of the Self-Concept model?

  • Even though the self concept is relatively stable, it is not static.

  • New experiences can change our self concept.

  • Symbolic self-completion is our tendency to complement self by displaying symbols associated with our identity.

Measuring the self concept
Measuring the Self-Concept model?

  • The Q-Sort technique involves giving respondents a number of cards (60-120), each containing a self-describing statement or situation for the respondent to evaluate.

  • Respondents sort these cards into a number of piles reflecting their assessment of how well each statement matches or differs from their own self perception.