Urbanization
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Urbanization. Immigration, job opportunity and a population explosion led to massive post-Civil War urbanization. By 1890 NYC, Philadelphia and Chicago were all over 1 million. crime, poverty, slums, pollution and the rise of tenements (overcrowded dirty apartments).

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Urbanization

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Urbanization

Urbanization

  • Immigration, job opportunity and a population explosion led to massive post-Civil War urbanization.

  • By 1890 NYC, Philadelphia and Chicago were all over 1 million.

    • crime, poverty, slums, pollution and the rise of tenements (overcrowded dirty apartments).

  • Louis Sullivan’s “skyscraper” allowed cities to grow up

    • Made possible by invention of elevators & steel

  • Electric trolleys allowed cities to grow out


Restrictions on immigration

Restrictions on Immigration

  • Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

    • Chinese immigration banned

  • Anti-foreign organizations urged slowdowns in immigration especially from Catholic Italy and voted to ban Catholic and Jewish candidates from office.

  • Ethnic ghettos began to arise as immigrants found solace in settling with their own kind.


Settlement houses

Settlement Houses

  • Immigrants found only a few willing to give them assistance

    • Jane Addams established Hull House in Chicago to ease settlement, educate and help.

  • Addams also fought for women’s right’s (especially suffrage)

  • Other settlement houses sprang up

    • “indoctrinated” immigrants with US culture, life and English language

  • Not all were so helpful as “nativists” sentiments often led to persecution of immigrants


Social gospel movement

Social Gospel Movement

  • Immigration and urbanization led to overwhelming demands for federal services

  • America’s churches met the demand through what many called the “social gospel”. (i.e. Salvation Army)

  • Pushed for improvements in sanitation, child labor laws, slums, inequality, and hygiene.

  • Paves the way for “progressivism” in the early 1900s.


Black leaders

Black Leaders

  • Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois emerged as leaders Jim Crow segregation laws in the South.

  • DuBois

    • co-founder of the NAACP

    • The first black Ph.D. at Harvard

    • Demanded immediate equal rights/treatment

  • Washington

    • Created the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama

    • Stressed the importance of education before demanding equality.

  • Segregation was upheld in the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson(“separate but equal” is constitutional)


Naacp

NAACP

  • The NAACP was formed in response to the continuing horrific practice of lynching and violence against blacks.

  • Stated goal: secure for all people the rights guaranteed in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

    • 13th: end of slavery

    • 14th: equal protection of the law

    • 15th: universal adult male suffrage.


Organized labor

Organized Labor

  • The American Federation of Labor

    • Formed in 1886

    • “Umbrella” organization for other unions

  • In 1886, Samuel Gompers organized the American Federation of Labor (AFL)

    • Became the largest labor union organization in the United States.

  • Gompers supported the use of strikes, but favored peaceful negotiations as a way to gain fair contracts for workers from their employers.

  • By 1904, the American Federation of Labor had 1.7 million members.


Labor unrest

Labor Unrest

  • The labor problems between workers and owners often turned ugly with violence

    • Homestead Steel Strike, 1892

  • Rise of abusing child labor and sweatshops led to awful working conditions

  • Workers organized strikes for higher pay, better working conditions, and shorter hours.

  • Pres. Cleveland called on US troops to subdue workers, led by Eugene Debs, near Chicago in the Pullman strike of 1894.


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