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United States History, Part II SOL Review Reconstruction to World War I. USII.3a - Reconstruction Amendments What amendment bans slavery? The 13th Amendment What amendment grants citizenship to the former slaves? The 14th Amendment. What amendment grants the right to vote to all citizens?

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slide2
USII.3a - Reconstruction Amendments

What amendment bans slavery?

The 13th Amendment

What amendment grants citizenship to the former slaves?

The 14th Amendment

slide3
What amendment grants the right to vote to all citizens?

The 15th Amendment

What does the three Civil War Amendments guarantee to all citizens?

Equal protection under the law

slide4
USII.3b - Reconstruction Policies

Where did the harsh Reconstruction problems create problems?

The South

Who did the Reconstruction policies intend to help?

The former enslaved African Americans

slide5
Who was not allowed to hold public office following the Civil War?

Southern Military Leaders

Who could hold public office for the first time following the Civil War?

African Americans

What law gave African Americans equal rights following the Civil War?

Civil Rights Act of 1866

slide6
Who supervised the South and protected the rights of African Americans?

Northern soldiers (Federal troops)

What agency was established to aid African Americans?

The Freedman’s Bureau

Who took advantage of the Reconstruction policies and were resented by Southerners?

Northern Carpetbaggers

slide7
What event officially ended Reconstruction?

The Election of 1876

What did Rutherford B. Hayes promise to do in order win the election?

Remove federal troops from the South

What was passed that caused African Americans to lose the rights they had gained?

The Black Codes

slide8
USII.3c - Roles of Lincoln, Lee, and Douglass

What did Abraham Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction call for?

Reconciliation

What did Abraham Lincoln believe was more important than punishing the South?

Preserving the Union

slide9
What did Robert E. Lee urge Southerners to do even though some wanted to continue to fight?

Reconcile and reunite as Americans

What did Robert E. Lee become president of after the Civil War?

Washington College (Washington & Lee)

slide10
Who was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for all?

Frederick Douglass

What right did Frederick Douglass want guaranteed by constitutional amendment for African Americans?

Voting Rights

slide11
USII.2a – Physical features/climate of the Great Plains

What is the name of the flatlands located in the Midwest that rise gradually from east to west?

The Great Plains

slide12
What did people call the Great Plains before the Civil War?

A treeless wasteland

What eroded the Great Plains?

Wind and Water

What caused the Great Plains to be very dry?

Low rainfall

slide13
What did a lack of rain cause?

Frequent dust storms

What helped the Great Plains become an area that could be settled?

New technologies

slide14
USII.2a – Inventions/Adaptations

What was used to keep cows from wandering off and away from crops?

Barbed wire

What farming technique was used to grow wheat in dry soil?

Dry farming

slide15
What farming tool was used bust up tough soil so crops could be planted deep in the soil?

Steel plows

What were many houses made of due to the lack of trees?

Sod

slide16
What crop could farmers grow and make a profit on?

Wheat farming

What did many ranchers and cowboys raise to make a living?

Beef cattle

What was used to pump water?

Windmills

slide17
USII.2b – Transportation of resources

Transportation advances allowed natural resources like copper and lead to be moved to –

eastern factories

slide18
Transportation advances allowed iron ore deposits to be moved to –

steel mills

Transportation advances allowed finished products to be moved to –

national markets

slide19
USII.2b – Examples of Manufacturing Areas

What area is the center of the steel industry?

Pittsburgh

slide20
What area is the center of the textile industry?

New England

What area is the center of the automobile industry?

Detroit

slide22
USII.3a – Reasons for Westward Expansion

Many settlers moved westward due to the Homestead Act and other opportunities for –

land ownership

What major technological advancement made it easier to travel westward?

The Transcontinental Railroad

slide23
What was discovered that led people to move westward in hopes of becoming wealthy?

Gold and Silver

Many people moved to the Wild West for –

adventure

Who moved westward following the Civil War in search of a new beginning?

Former enslaved African Americans

slide24
USII.4a - Impact on American Indians

Who provided opposition to settlers during westward expansion?

American Indians

Where did Sitting Bull’s tribes defeat the United States Calvary led by General George Custer?

Battle of Little Bighorn

slide25
Who led raids on the settlers and the army in Arizona?

Geronimo

What reduced the American Indians population besides warfare?

Diseases

Where were many Indian tribes forced to relocate as settlers moved westward?

Reservations

slide26
What describes the American Indians on the reservations being forced to change their culture?

Assimilation

What did the American Indians often sign that reduced their homeland, but were often broken?

Treaties

slide27
What did settlers slaughter as they moved westward that the American Indians depended on?

The buffalo

Who was the last of the great Indian chiefs to surrender?

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce

What was the final armed conflict with the American Indians?

Wounded Knee

slide28
USII.3b – Reasons for increased immigration

What caused an increase in immigration from European countries?

a. Hope for: better opportunities

b. Religious: freedom

c. Escape from: oppressive governments

d. Adventure

slide29
USII.3b – Reasons why cities developed

Some cities developed due to:

specialized industries.

Where was the steel industry located?

Pittsburgh

Where was the meat packing industry located?

Chicago

slide30
Other cities developed due to _____________________ from other countries.

immigration

Many Americans moved from ____________________ to urban areas in search of job opportunities.

Rural areas

slide31
USII.3b – Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth

Who invented the telephone service?

Alexander Graham Bell

Who invented the electric light bulb and mechanical uses of electricity?

Thomas Edison

slide32
What did rapid industrialization and urbanization lead to?

Overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements

slide33
USII.3b – Efforts to solve immigration problems

Who started a settlement house called the Hull House to help immigrants?

Jane Addams

Who gained power by helping immigrants find jobs and housing, but often in exchange for votes?

Political machines

slide34
USII.3b – Interaction and conflict between different cultural groups

Who helped build the Transcontinental Railroad, but faced discrimination on the West Coast?

The Chinese

What group of immigrants left Europe due to the potato famine, but faced discrimination for being Catholic?

The Irish

slide35
USII.3b – Challenges faced by cities

What were the names of the overcrowded immigrant apartments and neighborhoods?

Tenements and Ghettos

Who were the politically corrupt organizations that gained control of city and state governments?

Political Machines

slide36
USII.3d – Reasons for rise and prosperity of big business

What was created by advances in transportation that helped big business?

National Markets

Who was the captain of the oil industry?

John D. Rockefeller

slide37
Who was the captain of the steel industry?

Andrew Carnegie

Who was the captain of the automobile industry?

Henry Ford

Who was the shipping and railroad tycoon?

Cornelius Vanderbilt

slide38
How did big business make consumers aware of their products?

Advertising

How did the assembly line help big business prosper?

Lower-cost production

What are three examples of big business?

Railroad, Oil, and Steel

slide39
USII.3d – Factors resulting in the growth of industry

As a result of better transportation what did factories have better access to?

Raw materials and energy

What provided the factories the availability of a large work force?

Immigration

slide40
Many of these used electricity and were created to be used in factories?

Inventions

What did banks and the Stock Market provide industries to help them grow?

Financial resources

slide41
USII.3d – Postwar changes in farm and city life

What increased production, but reduced the need for farm labor?

Mechanization

What machine is an example of mechanization on the farm?

The Mechanical Reaper

slide42
What did industrial development create in the cities?

Labor needs (jobs)

What created job opportunities in the cities?

Industrial development

How did industrialization provide people in rural areas access to consumer goods?

Mail Order Catalogues

slide44
USII.3c – Racial Segregation following Reconstruction

What is another name for discrimination based upon race?

Racial segregation

Who was the primary target of racial discrimination?

African Americans

slide45
Were African Americans the only target of racial discrimination?

No, Indians, Chinese, and Irish faced discrimination.

Who were not considered citizens until 1924?

American Indians

What laws discriminated against African Americans?

“Jim Crow” laws

slide46
What laws made discrimination legal in many communities and states?

“Jim Crow” laws

Where did the “Jim Crow” laws deny African Americans equal opportunities?

Housing, Work, Education, & Government

Who believed African Americans could achieve equality by learning trade skills through vocational education?

Booker T. Washington

slide47
What did Booker T. Washington accept?

Social separation

Who believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African Americans?

W.E.B. Du Bois

What organization did W.E.B. Du Bois help start?

N.A.A.C.P

slide48
USII.3e – Negative effects of industrialization

What were some of the negative effects of industrialization?

Child labor, low wages, long hours, and unsafe working conditions

slide49
USII.3e – Rise of organized labor

What did workers form to get better pay and working conditions?

Labor unions

What labor union formed by Samuel Gompers grew during this time?

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

slide50
What tactic did labor unions use to get management to meet their demands?

Strikes

What famous strike used violence and hurt the labor union movement?

The Homestead Strike

slide51
USII.3e – The Progressive Movement

What reforms were due to the Progressive Movement?

Improved safety conditions, reduced work hours, and restrictions on child labor

What was the purpose of the suffrage movement?

Voting rights for women

slide52
What constitutional amendment finally granted women the right to vote in 1920?

The 19th Amendment

Who were the leaders for women’s suffrage?

Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Where else did women want more opportunities?

Education

slide53
What was the name of the movement to stop the making and consuming of alcohol?

The Temperance Movement

What constitutional amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages?

18th Amendment

slide55
USII.4a – Reasons for the Spanish American War

Whose economic interests did the United States want to protect in Cuba?

American business interests

Who did many Americans want Cuba to gain their independence from?

Spain

slide56
What happened in the Havana Harbor that was blamed on Spain?

The sinking of the U.S.S. Maine

What was the name given to the exaggerated news reports of events?

Yellow Journalism

How did Yellow Journalism affect public opinion for the war?

Americans supported the war

slide57
USII.4a – Results of the Spanish American War

What did the United States become after it won the Spanish American War?

A world power

Who gained their independence from Spain?

Cuba

slide58
What possessions did the United States gain from Spain?

Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico

What two things influenced the United States’ involvement in the Spanish American War?

Economic interests and public opinion

slide59
USII.5b - The Roosevelt Corollary

What did Theodore Roosevelt expand in order to prevent European involvement in Caribbean and South American countries?

The Monroe Doctrine

slide60
What kind of matters in the countries of the Americans did Theodore Roosevelt believe the United States had the right to interfere with?

Economic Matters

What did Theodore Roosevelt claim the United States had the right to exercise?

International Police Power

What did Theodore Roosevelt use his “Big Stick Diplomacy” to help get built?

The Panama Canal

slide61
USII.4b – World War I

What was the United States’ policy to remain neutral during the war?

Isolationism

What country did the United States have close economic and political ties to?

Great Britain

slide62
What type of warfare was Germany using that upset the United States?

Unrestricted submarine warfare

What was the name of the ship carrying American passengers that German submarines sank?

The Lusitania

slide63
What country did Germany secretly try to get to attack the United States?

Mexico

How did the United States find out about Germany’s plan?

The Zimmerman Telegram

slide64
Which side: Allies or Central Powers?

Austria-Hungary – Central Powers

Belgium – Allies

Bulgaria – Central Powers

France – Allies

Germany – Central Powers

Great Britain – Allies

Ottoman Empire – Central Powers

Russia – Allies

Serbia – Allies

United States – Allies

slide65
Who prepared a plan for peace following the war and was the President of the United States during World War I?

Woodrow Wilson

What was Woodrow Wilson’s peace-keeping organization called?

The League of Nations

What was President’s Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace called?

The Fourteen Points

slide66
What did the United States NOT join because they did not want to get involved in anymore European wars?

The League of Nations

Who did not ratify the treaty in order for the United States to join the League of Nations?

The Senate

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