United States History, Part II SOL Review Reconstruction to World War I. USII.3a - Reconstruction Amendments What amendment bans slavery? The 13th Amendment What amendment grants citizenship to the former slaves? The 14th Amendment. What amendment grants the right to vote to all citizens?
United States History, Part II SOL ReviewReconstruction to World War I
USII.3a - Reconstruction Amendments
What amendment bans slavery?
The 13th Amendment
What amendment grants citizenship to the former slaves?
The 14th Amendment
What amendment grants the right to vote to all citizens?
The 15th Amendment
What does the three Civil War Amendments guarantee to all citizens?
Equal protection under the law
USII.3b - Reconstruction Policies
Where did the harsh Reconstruction problems create problems?
Who did the Reconstruction policies intend to help?
The former enslaved African Americans
Who was not allowed to hold public office following the Civil War?
Southern Military Leaders
Who could hold public office for the first time following the Civil War?
What law gave African Americans equal rights following the Civil War?
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Who supervised the South and protected the rights of African Americans?
Northern soldiers (Federal troops)
What agency was established to aid African Americans?
The Freedman’s Bureau
Who took advantage of the Reconstruction policies and were resented by Southerners?
What event officially ended Reconstruction?
The Election of 1876
What did Rutherford B. Hayes promise to do in order win the election?
Remove federal troops from the South
What was passed that caused African Americans to lose the rights they had gained?
The Black Codes
USII.3c - Roles of Lincoln, Lee, and Douglass
What did Abraham Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction call for?
What did Abraham Lincoln believe was more important than punishing the South?
Preserving the Union
What did Robert E. Lee urge Southerners to do even though some wanted to continue to fight?
Reconcile and reunite as Americans
What did Robert E. Lee become president of after the Civil War?
Washington College (Washington & Lee)
Who was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for all?
What right did Frederick Douglass want guaranteed by constitutional amendment for African Americans?
USII.2a – Physical features/climate of the Great Plains
What is the name of the flatlands located in the Midwest that rise gradually from east to west?
The Great Plains
What did people call the Great Plains before the Civil War?
A treeless wasteland
What eroded the Great Plains?
Wind and Water
What caused the Great Plains to be very dry?
What did a lack of rain cause?
Frequent dust storms
What helped the Great Plains become an area that could be settled?
USII.2a – Inventions/Adaptations
What was used to keep cows from wandering off and away from crops?
What farming technique was used to grow wheat in dry soil?
What farming tool was used bust up tough soil so crops could be planted deep in the soil?
What were many houses made of due to the lack of trees?
What crop could farmers grow and make a profit on?
What did many ranchers and cowboys raise to make a living?
What was used to pump water?
USII.2b – Transportation of resources
Transportation advances allowed natural resources like copper and lead to be moved to –
Transportation advances allowed iron ore deposits to be moved to –
Transportation advances allowed finished products to be moved to –
USII.2b – Examples of Manufacturing Areas
What area is the center of the steel industry?
What area is the center of the textile industry?
What area is the center of the automobile industry?
USII.3a – Reasons for Westward Expansion
Many settlers moved westward due to the Homestead Act and other opportunities for –
What major technological advancement made it easier to travel westward?
The Transcontinental Railroad
What was discovered that led people to move westward in hopes of becoming wealthy?
Gold and Silver
Many people moved to the Wild West for –
Who moved westward following the Civil War in search of a new beginning?
Former enslaved African Americans
USII.4a - Impact on American Indians
Who provided opposition to settlers during westward expansion?
Where did Sitting Bull’s tribes defeat the United States Calvary led by General George Custer?
Battle of Little Bighorn
Who led raids on the settlers and the army in Arizona?
What reduced the American Indians population besides warfare?
Where were many Indian tribes forced to relocate as settlers moved westward?
What describes the American Indians on the reservations being forced to change their culture?
What did the American Indians often sign that reduced their homeland, but were often broken?
What did settlers slaughter as they moved westward that the American Indians depended on?
Who was the last of the great Indian chiefs to surrender?
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
What was the final armed conflict with the American Indians?
USII.3b – Reasons for increased immigration
What caused an increase in immigration from European countries?
a. Hope for: better opportunities
b. Religious: freedom
c. Escape from: oppressive governments
USII.3b – Reasons why cities developed
Some cities developed due to:
Where was the steel industry located?
Where was the meat packing industry located?
Other cities developed due to _____________________ from other countries.
Many Americans moved from ____________________ to urban areas in search of job opportunities.
USII.3b – Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth
Who invented the telephone service?
Alexander Graham Bell
Who invented the electric light bulb and mechanical uses of electricity?
What did rapid industrialization and urbanization lead to?
Overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements
USII.3b – Efforts to solve immigration problems
Who started a settlement house called the Hull House to help immigrants?
Who gained power by helping immigrants find jobs and housing, but often in exchange for votes?
USII.3b – Interaction and conflict between different cultural groups
Who helped build the Transcontinental Railroad, but faced discrimination on the West Coast?
What group of immigrants left Europe due to the potato famine, but faced discrimination for being Catholic?
USII.3b – Challenges faced by cities
What were the names of the overcrowded immigrant apartments and neighborhoods?
Tenements and Ghettos
Who were the politically corrupt organizations that gained control of city and state governments?
USII.3d – Reasons for rise and prosperity of big business
What was created by advances in transportation that helped big business?
Who was the captain of the oil industry?
John D. Rockefeller
Who was the captain of the steel industry?
Who was the captain of the automobile industry?
Who was the shipping and railroad tycoon?
How did big business make consumers aware of their products?
How did the assembly line help big business prosper?
What are three examples of big business?
Railroad, Oil, and Steel
USII.3d – Factors resulting in the growth of industry
As a result of better transportation what did factories have better access to?
Raw materials and energy
What provided the factories the availability of a large work force?
Many of these used electricity and were created to be used in factories?
What did banks and the Stock Market provide industries to help them grow?
USII.3d – Postwar changes in farm and city life
What increased production, but reduced the need for farm labor?
What machine is an example of mechanization on the farm?
The Mechanical Reaper
What did industrial development create in the cities?
Labor needs (jobs)
What created job opportunities in the cities?
How did industrialization provide people in rural areas access to consumer goods?
Mail Order Catalogues
USII.3c – Racial Segregation following Reconstruction
What is another name for discrimination based upon race?
Who was the primary target of racial discrimination?
Were African Americans the only target of racial discrimination?
No, Indians, Chinese, and Irish faced discrimination.
Who were not considered citizens until 1924?
What laws discriminated against African Americans?
“Jim Crow” laws
What laws made discrimination legal in many communities and states?
“Jim Crow” laws
Where did the “Jim Crow” laws deny African Americans equal opportunities?
Housing, Work, Education, & Government
Who believed African Americans could achieve equality by learning trade skills through vocational education?
Booker T. Washington
What did Booker T. Washington accept?
Who believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African Americans?
W.E.B. Du Bois
What organization did W.E.B. Du Bois help start?
USII.3e – Negative effects of industrialization
What were some of the negative effects of industrialization?
Child labor, low wages, long hours, and unsafe working conditions
USII.3e – Rise of organized labor
What did workers form to get better pay and working conditions?
What labor union formed by Samuel Gompers grew during this time?
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
What tactic did labor unions use to get management to meet their demands?
What famous strike used violence and hurt the labor union movement?
The Homestead Strike
USII.3e – The Progressive Movement
What reforms were due to the Progressive Movement?
Improved safety conditions, reduced work hours, and restrictions on child labor
What was the purpose of the suffrage movement?
Voting rights for women
What constitutional amendment finally granted women the right to vote in 1920?
The 19th Amendment
Who were the leaders for women’s suffrage?
Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Where else did women want more opportunities?
What was the name of the movement to stop the making and consuming of alcohol?
The Temperance Movement
What constitutional amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages?
USII.4a – Reasons for the Spanish American War
Whose economic interests did the United States want to protect in Cuba?
American business interests
Who did many Americans want Cuba to gain their independence from?
What happened in the Havana Harbor that was blamed on Spain?
The sinking of the U.S.S. Maine
What was the name given to the exaggerated news reports of events?
How did Yellow Journalism affect public opinion for the war?
Americans supported the war
USII.4a – Results of the Spanish American War
What did the United States become after it won the Spanish American War?
A world power
Who gained their independence from Spain?
What possessions did the United States gain from Spain?
Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico
What two things influenced the United States’ involvement in the Spanish American War?
Economic interests and public opinion
USII.5b - The Roosevelt Corollary
What did Theodore Roosevelt expand in order to prevent European involvement in Caribbean and South American countries?
The Monroe Doctrine
What kind of matters in the countries of the Americans did Theodore Roosevelt believe the United States had the right to interfere with?
What did Theodore Roosevelt claim the United States had the right to exercise?
International Police Power
What did Theodore Roosevelt use his “Big Stick Diplomacy” to help get built?
The Panama Canal
USII.4b – World War I
What was the United States’ policy to remain neutral during the war?
What country did the United States have close economic and political ties to?
What type of warfare was Germany using that upset the United States?
Unrestricted submarine warfare
What was the name of the ship carrying American passengers that German submarines sank?
What country did Germany secretly try to get to attack the United States?
How did the United States find out about Germany’s plan?
The Zimmerman Telegram
Which side: Allies or Central Powers?
Austria-Hungary – Central Powers
Belgium – Allies
Bulgaria – Central Powers
France – Allies
Germany – Central Powers
Great Britain – Allies
Ottoman Empire – Central Powers
Russia – Allies
Serbia – Allies
United States – Allies
Who prepared a plan for peace following the war and was the President of the United States during World War I?
What was Woodrow Wilson’s peace-keeping organization called?
The League of Nations
What was President’s Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace called?
The Fourteen Points
What did the United States NOT join because they did not want to get involved in anymore European wars?
The League of Nations
Who did not ratify the treaty in order for the United States to join the League of Nations?