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United States History, Part II SOL Review Reconstruction to World War I. USII.3a - Reconstruction Amendments What amendment bans slavery? The 13th Amendment What amendment grants citizenship to the former slaves? The 14th Amendment. What amendment grants the right to vote to all citizens?
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What amendment bans slavery?
The 13th Amendment
What amendment grants citizenship to the former slaves?
The 14th Amendment
The 15th Amendment
What does the three Civil War Amendments guarantee to all citizens?
Equal protection under the law
Where did the harsh Reconstruction problems create problems?
Who did the Reconstruction policies intend to help?
The former enslaved African Americans
Southern Military Leaders
Who could hold public office for the first time following the Civil War?
What law gave African Americans equal rights following the Civil War?
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Northern soldiers (Federal troops)
What agency was established to aid African Americans?
The Freedman’s Bureau
Who took advantage of the Reconstruction policies and were resented by Southerners?
The Election of 1876
What did Rutherford B. Hayes promise to do in order win the election?
Remove federal troops from the South
What was passed that caused African Americans to lose the rights they had gained?
The Black Codes
What did Abraham Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction call for?
What did Abraham Lincoln believe was more important than punishing the South?
Preserving the Union
Reconcile and reunite as Americans
What did Robert E. Lee become president of after the Civil War?
Washington College (Washington & Lee)
What right did Frederick Douglass want guaranteed by constitutional amendment for African Americans?
What is the name of the flatlands located in the Midwest that rise gradually from east to west?
The Great Plains
A treeless wasteland
What eroded the Great Plains?
Wind and Water
What caused the Great Plains to be very dry?
Frequent dust storms
What helped the Great Plains become an area that could be settled?
What was used to keep cows from wandering off and away from crops?
What farming technique was used to grow wheat in dry soil?
What were many houses made of due to the lack of trees?
What did many ranchers and cowboys raise to make a living?
What was used to pump water?
Transportation advances allowed natural resources like copper and lead to be moved to –
Transportation advances allowed finished products to be moved to –
What area is the center of the steel industry?
What area is the center of the automobile industry?
Many settlers moved westward due to the Homestead Act and other opportunities for –
What major technological advancement made it easier to travel westward?
The Transcontinental Railroad
Gold and Silver
Many people moved to the Wild West for –
Who moved westward following the Civil War in search of a new beginning?
Former enslaved African Americans
Who provided opposition to settlers during westward expansion?
Where did Sitting Bull’s tribes defeat the United States Calvary led by General George Custer?
Battle of Little Bighorn
What reduced the American Indians population besides warfare?
Where were many Indian tribes forced to relocate as settlers moved westward?
What did the American Indians often sign that reduced their homeland, but were often broken?
Who was the last of the great Indian chiefs to surrender?
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
What was the final armed conflict with the American Indians?
What caused an increase in immigration from European countries?
a. Hope for: better opportunities
b. Religious: freedom
c. Escape from: oppressive governments
Some cities developed due to:
Where was the steel industry located?
Where was the meat packing industry located?
Many Americans moved from ____________________ to urban areas in search of job opportunities.
Who invented the telephone service?
Alexander Graham Bell
Who invented the electric light bulb and mechanical uses of electricity?
Overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements
Who started a settlement house called the Hull House to help immigrants?
Who gained power by helping immigrants find jobs and housing, but often in exchange for votes?
Who helped build the Transcontinental Railroad, but faced discrimination on the West Coast?
What group of immigrants left Europe due to the potato famine, but faced discrimination for being Catholic?
What were the names of the overcrowded immigrant apartments and neighborhoods?
Tenements and Ghettos
Who were the politically corrupt organizations that gained control of city and state governments?
What was created by advances in transportation that helped big business?
Who was the captain of the oil industry?
John D. Rockefeller
Who was the captain of the automobile industry?
Who was the shipping and railroad tycoon?
How did the assembly line help big business prosper?
What are three examples of big business?
Railroad, Oil, and Steel
As a result of better transportation what did factories have better access to?
Raw materials and energy
What provided the factories the availability of a large work force?
What did banks and the Stock Market provide industries to help them grow?
What increased production, but reduced the need for farm labor?
What machine is an example of mechanization on the farm?
The Mechanical Reaper
Labor needs (jobs)
What created job opportunities in the cities?
How did industrialization provide people in rural areas access to consumer goods?
Mail Order Catalogues
What is another name for discrimination based upon race?
Who was the primary target of racial discrimination?
No, Indians, Chinese, and Irish faced discrimination.
Who were not considered citizens until 1924?
What laws discriminated against African Americans?
“Jim Crow” laws
“Jim Crow” laws
Where did the “Jim Crow” laws deny African Americans equal opportunities?
Housing, Work, Education, & Government
Who believed African Americans could achieve equality by learning trade skills through vocational education?
Booker T. Washington
Who believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African Americans?
W.E.B. Du Bois
What organization did W.E.B. Du Bois help start?
What were some of the negative effects of industrialization?
Child labor, low wages, long hours, and unsafe working conditions
What did workers form to get better pay and working conditions?
What labor union formed by Samuel Gompers grew during this time?
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
What famous strike used violence and hurt the labor union movement?
The Homestead Strike
What reforms were due to the Progressive Movement?
Improved safety conditions, reduced work hours, and restrictions on child labor
What was the purpose of the suffrage movement?
Voting rights for women
The 19th Amendment
Who were the leaders for women’s suffrage?
Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Where else did women want more opportunities?
The Temperance Movement
What constitutional amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages?
Whose economic interests did the United States want to protect in Cuba?
American business interests
Who did many Americans want Cuba to gain their independence from?
The sinking of the U.S.S. Maine
What was the name given to the exaggerated news reports of events?
How did Yellow Journalism affect public opinion for the war?
Americans supported the war
What did the United States become after it won the Spanish American War?
A world power
Who gained their independence from Spain?
Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico
What two things influenced the United States’ involvement in the Spanish American War?
Economic interests and public opinion
What did Theodore Roosevelt expand in order to prevent European involvement in Caribbean and South American countries?
The Monroe Doctrine
What did Theodore Roosevelt claim the United States had the right to exercise?
International Police Power
What did Theodore Roosevelt use his “Big Stick Diplomacy” to help get built?
The Panama Canal
What was the United States’ policy to remain neutral during the war?
What country did the United States have close economic and political ties to?
Unrestricted submarine warfare
What was the name of the ship carrying American passengers that German submarines sank?
How did the United States find out about Germany’s plan?
The Zimmerman Telegram
Austria-Hungary – Central Powers
Belgium – Allies
Bulgaria – Central Powers
France – Allies
Germany – Central Powers
Great Britain – Allies
Ottoman Empire – Central Powers
Russia – Allies
Serbia – Allies
United States – Allies
What was Woodrow Wilson’s peace-keeping organization called?
The League of Nations
What was President’s Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace called?
The Fourteen Points
The League of Nations
Who did not ratify the treaty in order for the United States to join the League of Nations?