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Freeze-TCP: a true end-to-end TCP enhancement mechanism for mobile environments Goff, T.; Moronski, J.; Phatak, D.S.; Gupta, V. INFOCOM 2000. Lee Hyo Jin 2001 Fall Mobile Networks 발표자료 Nov/28/2001 Prof. Young-Joo Suh . Reference.

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lee hyo jin 2001 fall mobile networks nov 28 2001 prof young joo suh

Freeze-TCP: a true end-to-end TCP enhancement mechanism for mobile environmentsGoff, T.; Moronski, J.; Phatak, D.S.; Gupta, V.INFOCOM 2000

Lee Hyo Jin

2001 Fall Mobile Networks 발표자료

Nov/28/2001

Prof. Young-Joo Suh

reference
Reference
  • Tom Goff et el, "Freeze-TCP: A True End-to-End TCP Enhancement Mechanism for Mobile Environments," INFOCOM\'00.
  • K. Brown and S. Singh,“M-TCP: TCP for Mobile Cellular Networks,”ACM Computer Communications Review (CCR), vol. 27, no. 5, 1997.
  • Ajay Bakre and B.R. Badrinath,“I-TCP: Indirect TCP for mobile hosts,”Tech. Rep., Rutgers University, May 1995,

(2)

contents
Contents
  • Introduction.
  • Requirement
  • Key concepts.
  • TCP window management.
  • Introduce to existing solutions.
  • Details of Freeze-TCP.
  • Experimental result.
  • Conclusion and Discussion.

(3)

introduction
Introduction
  • Need to optimize TCP for mobility.
  • Not true end-to-end scheme.
    • Intermediaries. ( like Base Stations )
      • To monitor the TCP traffic and participate in flow control to enhance TCP performance.
    • Not applicable when IP payload is encrypted.(IPSEC)
      • Security associations between sender and receiver.
  • Require changes TCP/IP code at intermediate node.
    • It is difficult for mobile clients to inter-operate with the existing infrastructure.

(4)

requirements
Requirements
  • True end to end scheme.
  • Interoperate existing infrastructure.
    • TCP code must change in mobile client (MH)
  • Need to performance enhancement.

 We need a new scheme.

(5)

key concepts
Key Concepts
  • No help with base stations in hand-off.
  • To detect an impending handoff at client.( MH )
  • ZWA(MH): zero window advertisement.
  • ZWP (FH) : zero window probes.
  • TR-ACKs : Triplicate acks.
  • True end to end semantics.
  • Performance enhancement.

(6)

tcp window management 1
TCP window management -1
  • The window size
    • minimum of receiver’s advertised buffer size
    • perceived network congestions.
  • The receiver run out of its buffer-space and advertise a window size of zero. ( ZWA )
  • The sender should freeze all retransmit-timers and enter a persist-mode on seeing ZWA.

(7)

tcp window management 2

Data1 win4

1

2

Ack1 win4

4

3 4 5 6

DATA3 ~ 6 win4

8

Ack6 win0

Ack6 win4

9

DATA10 ~13 win4

10 11 12 13

ZWA

TCP window management -2

sender

receiver

(8)

tcp window management 3
TCP window management -3
  • ZWP
  • Sending probes until the receiver’s window opens up.
  • Sender want to knows receiver’s window opened or not, in advance.
  • Interval
    • exponential back-off until it reaches 1 minute
    • remains constant after 1 minute.
  • Receiver responds to a ZWP with a non-zero window size.
  • Sender will continue transmission using a window size consistent with the advertised value.

(9)

tcp window management 6

ZWP

TCP window management -6

Data1 win4

1

2

Ack1 win4

4

3 4 5 6

DATA3 ~ 6 win4

8

Ack6 win0

Ack6 win4

9

DATA10 ~13 win4

10 11 12 13

ZWA

(10)

tcp window management 7
TCP window management -7

8

Ack6 win0

ZWP

Probe response (win4)

9

Original ack

10 11 12 13

DATA10 ~13 win4

(11)

existing solutions
Existing Solutions
  • SNOOP
  • I-TCP ( Indirect TCP )
  • EBSN ( Explicit bad state notifications )
  • Delayed dupacks
  • M-TCP

(12)

i tcp
I-TCP

MH socket

(mhaddr, mhport, msr1addr, msr1port)

  • Split the connection
    • FH-BS : Standard TCP.
    • BS-MH : Standard TCP ,Optimizing protocol.(MTCP)
  • Retain a little RTT
    • Fast recovery about cwnd size degradations.
  • Need to exchange the status information
    • Long delay time.
    • MSR buffer size is small. (to reduce handoff time)
    • MSR : Mobility Support Routers.

MH

MH

Wireless TCP

MSR1or 2 mhsocket

(msr1addr, msr1port, mhaddr, mhport)

MSR 1

MSR 2

MSR1or 2 fhsocket

(mhaddr, mhport, fhaddr, fhport)

Regular TCP

FH

FH socket

(fhaddr, fhport, mhaddr, mhport)

(13)

slide14
EBSN
  • Explicit bad-state notifications.
  • BS sends an EBSN to sender when each failed attempt to send a packet to a MH.
  • On receipt of each EBSN, the sender reset retransmission timer to original value.
  • Prevent the sender from dropping congestion window.

(14)

m tcp 1

MH

M-TCP (1)
  • Performance enhancement during hand-off.
  • Low BER and Frequent disconnections.
  • 3 level hierarchy structure.
    • Reduce MSS functions
    • No need to exchange the status info moving MSS in the same SH domain.

High-speed Network

SH

SH

MSS

Cell

SH : Supervisor Host

MSS : Mobile Support Station

MH : Mbile Host

(15)

m tcp 2

FH

MH

BS

M-TCP (2)
  • End to end TCP semantics.
    • TCP connection is split at the BS
    • The SH does not send an ack FH unless BS has received an ack from MH.

(16)

m tcp 3
M-TCP (3)
  • TCP Persist Mode
    • When the positive window advertisement is received, sender exits persist mode.
    • Retain RTO and congestion window size.
  • Need help from BS.
    • BS detect disconnection or packet loss.
    • BS withholds ack for last one byte.
    • Re-packetization penalty at sender.
    • This ack uses to send to zero window advertisement at hand off.

(17)

picture of freeze tcp

BS

BS

Fixed Host

(Sender)

Probe res

ZWP

Connection

ZWA

MH

MH

MH

MH

Picture of Freeze-TCP

(19)

zwp freeze tcp 2
ZWPFreeze-TCP (2)
  • ZWP
    • ZWA force the sender into the ZWP (persist) mode.
    • To prevent it from dropping its congestion window.
    • To send ZWPs until the receiver’s opens up
    • The interval grows exponentially (exponential back off ) until it reaches 1 minute.
    • ZWP reponse does not have receiver’s advertisement window size.

(20)

warning period freezetcp 3
Warning PeriodFreezeTCP (3)
  • Warning period.
    • How much in advance of the disconnection should the receiver start advertising ZWA?
    • Ideally, long enough to ensure that exactly one ZWA get across to the sender.
    • Longer : idle time prior to disconnections
    • Small : sender’s congestion window to drop.
    • RTT is reasonable. ( ref : Experimental result )
    • Only useful if a disconnection occurs while data is being transferred.

(21)

tr ack 1 freeze tcp 3
TR-ACK -1Freeze-TCP (3)
  • Triplicate Reconnection ACKs
    • ZWPs are exponentially backed off.
    • The possibility of idle time after reconnections.
    • To avoid this idle time, TR-ACKs implements.
    • Effect of standard TCP.

(22)

tr ack
TR-ACK

ZWP

ZWP

Receiver window open

Sending again

sender

receiver

(23)

estimate performance 1 freeze tcp 4

W unACKed packets can be sent

Receiver

ts

Sender

RTT

Estimate performance -1Freeze-TCP (4)
  • Idle period avoided.
    • W •ts ≥ RTT , W ≥ RTT /ts

: ts ≈packet-size / band width , W : sender window size

(24)

estimate performance 2 freeze tcp 5
Estimate performance -2Freeze-TCP (5)
  • Increased throughput.

(25)

experimental result
Experimental result
  • Modifying the Linux 2.1.101 TCP source code.
  • Emulate the mobile host in a PC.
  • Freeze-TCP is not worsen performance by a noticeable amount.

(26)

conclusion and discussion 1
Conclusion and Discussion -1
  • To enhance TCP performance in the present of disconnections and reconnections.
  • True end-to-end signaling scheme.
  • Unnecessary intermediaries’s help.
  • Easy changing TCP code at receiver side
  • Easy to implement.
  • Almost no overheads and tradeoffs.
  • Complete inter-operability with existing infrastructure is guaranteed.

(27)

conclusion and discussion 2
Conclusion and Discussion -2
  • Full rate with old window size on entering new unknown environment or not.
  • Needs at receiver to predict impending disconnections. ( pro-active action/simulations )

(28)

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