Aquatic ecosystems
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Aquatic Ecosystems. 4 things determine aquatic ecosystems:. Depth Flow Temperature Chemistry. Only 3% of the Earth’s surface is fresh water. Two types of freshwater ecosystems:. Flowing water ecosystems. Standing water ecosystems. Flowing Water Ecosystems. Rivers Streams Creeks

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Aquatic Ecosystems

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Aquatic Ecosystems


4 things determine aquatic ecosystems:

  • Depth

  • Flow

  • Temperature

  • Chemistry


  • Only 3% of the Earth’s surface is fresh water.


Two types of freshwater ecosystems:


Flowing water ecosystems


Standing water ecosystems


Flowing Water Ecosystems

  • Rivers

  • Streams

  • Creeks

  • Brooks


Animals that live in Flowing –Water ecosystems:


Catfish


Trout


Turtles


Beavers


River Otters


Standing Water Ecosystems

  • Lakes

  • ponds


Plankton

  • General term for the tiny, free-floating or weakly swimming organisms that live in both fresh and salt water environments.

  • Phytoplankton – single celled photosynthetic algae

  • Zooplankton – small animals, usually microscopic, that feed on the phytoplankton.


Wetlands

  • Wetlands are productive because they are shallow with a lot of organic plant matter in the water that serves as breeding grounds for insects, fishes and other aquatic animals, amphibians, and migratory birds.


Wetland Bogs

  • Form in depressions left by sheets of ice.

  • Thick mats of sphagnum moss grow and the bogs tend to be very acidic.


Bog Finds

  • Many ancient bodies are preserved in the acidic / oxygen free bogs.

  • This man found in

    1950 is estimated to

    be over 2000 years

    old.


Venus Flytrap

Pitcher Plants


Wetland Marshes are shallow wetlands along streams that remain wet at least half the year.


Sawgrass marsh in the Everglades


Wetland Swamps

  • Wet year round

  • Often look like flooded forests with trees and shrubs.


Okefenokee Swamp


Estuaries are wetlands formed where rivers meet the sea.

They contain a mixture of fresh and salt water.


Estuaries

  • Freshwater and saltwater mix - brackish


Estuary Examples

  • Salt marshes: temperate zone estuaries dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the low tide line, and by seagrasses under water.

  • Mangrove swamps are coastal wetlands that are widespread across tropical regions, including southern Florida and Hawaii.


Salt Marsh


Marine Ecosystems

  • Contain salt water

  • Photic zone: well lit upper layer down to 200 meters where algae and other producers can grow.

  • Aphotic zone: permanently dark area where no photosynthetic organisms live, but some chemosynthetic organisms live.


Marine zone based on depth of water & distance from shore:

  • Intertidal zone

  • Coastal ocean

  • Open ocean


Tides

  • The portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide lines is called the intertidal zone.


Intertidal zone

  • Barnacles

  • Seaweed

  • Snails

  • Sea urchins

  • Sea stars


Intertidal Zone


Coastal ocean

  • Kelp forests

  • Snails

  • Sea urchins

  • Sea otters

  • Fishes

  • Seals

  • whales


Coral Reefs

  • Corals are relatives to the jellyfish that secrete a hard substance called calcium carbonate.

  • They live in symbiosis with algae contained within the body of each coral animal.

  • Almost all grow within 40 meters of the surface.


Coral Reefs


Open Ocean

  • Begins at the edge

    of the continental

    shelf and extends

    outward.

  • Largest marine zone

  • 500 meters to 11,000 meters.

  • Swordfish, octopus, dolphins, whales


Plankton

  • Small organisms that live in the waters of the photic zone.

  • phytoplankton–microscopic plants and bacteria

  • zooplankton–microscopic animals


Benthic Zone

  • Ocean floor

  • Organisms that live near or attached to the bottom

  • Sea stars, anemones, marine worms – all referred to as benthos.

  • Clams, sea cucumbers


Harris Neck NWR


Baby Alligator


Sapelo Island


Sapelo Island - Blackbeard


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