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Haiku Error Messages:      Chaos reigns within.         Stop, reflect, and reboot.          Order shall return.          Yesterday it worked          Today it is not working          Windows is like that.

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Haiku Error Messages:

     Chaos reigns within.         Stop, reflect, and reboot.         Order shall return.

         Yesterday it worked         Today it is not working         Windows is like that.

         Windows XP crashed.         The Blue Screen of Death.         No one hears your screams.


Device management
Device Management

III. File Management

D. something

1. smaller some



E. Access Methods

Logical Level

How are records located within a file?


method to use depends upon file’s intended application

fixed length records vs.variable length records


Fixed length record - all records in file are same size

Class ID Number Sex Last Name

4 char 9 int 1char 20 char


Variable length record - records in file are diff sizes

Name Birthplace Personal Mission Statement

5-10 char 10 - 20 char 0 - 100 char


fixed length records =easy to implement,but may waste space

variable length records =difficult to implement, but no wasted space


1. Sequential Access

Records are logically ordered within the file

Records are accessed one after the other in order


1. Sequential Access

analogy - phone book

but must search it in order


2. Random Access

Records are located directly within the file

Hashing algorithm determines the record’s logical address


2. Random Access

analogy - phone book

open book to exactly the right page and put your finger on exactly the right record


it’s not magic, it’s an algorithm

Hashing Algorithm:

key field value modulo file’s prime numberyields logical address


Hashing Algorithm ex:

45 (key field value) modulo11 (file’s prime number)yields[4] r1 (logical address)


Logical Record # File

Key Field (eg ID number)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Zeb - 45 - $0.02

45

Hashing Algorithm

45 % 11 = 1


Logical Record # File

Key Field (eg ID number)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Zeb - 45 - $0.02

15

Zeke - 15 - $5.00

Hashing Algorithm

15 % 11 = 4


Logical Record # File

Key Field (eg ID number)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Zeb - 45 - $0.02

58

Martha - 58 - $25

Zeke - 15 - $5.00

Hashing Algorithm

58 % 11 = 3


Logical Record # File

Key Field (eg ID number)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Zeb - 45 - $0.02

32

Martha - 58 - $25

Zeke - 15 - $5.00

Hashing Algorithm

32 % 11 = 10

Mable - 32 - $50


Logical Record # File

Key Field (eg ID number)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Zeb - 45 - $0.02

47

hash clash

Martha - 58 - $25

Zeke - 15 - $5.00

Hashing Algorithm

47 % 11 = 3

Mable - 32 - $50


3. Indexed Access

features of both

add an index “layer” on top of the file


B-tree Index

37

33

Logical Record # File

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

21

33

21

19

18

18

Zerub, 19, $1.98

17

10

10

8

9

8

6


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