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Geographic Information Systems “GIS ” PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Geographic Information Systems “GIS ”. “Geography Matters”. Think about “Geography”. What is Geography The 3 “ W’s ” of Geography What is where Why is it there Why do I care. Data - Data - Data We all ‘got data’. Location Data – How Many – What Kind – Where

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Geographic Information Systems “GIS ”

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Geographic information systems gis l.jpg

Geographic Information Systems “GIS”

“Geography Matters”

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Think about “Geography”

  • What is Geography

    The 3 “W’s” of Geography

    • What is where

    • Why is it there

    • Why do I care

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Data - Data - DataWe all ‘got data’

  • Location Data – How Many – What Kind – Where

  • Scale of Data– Local to Global

  • Data Presentation

    – Words, Charts, Graphs, Tables, or Maps

    Exploring data using GIS turns data into information into knowledge

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Geographic Information SystemsA Definition of GIS

  • GIS is a System ofcomputer software, hardware and data, and personnel to help manipulate, analyze and present information that is tied to a spatial location –

    • spatial location– usually a geographic location

    • information– visualization of analysis of data

    • system–linking software, hardware, data

    • personnel–a thinking explorer who is key to the power of GIS

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What is Not GIS?

  • GPS–Global Positioning System

  • Astatic map–paper or digital

    • Maps are often a “product” of a GIS

    • A way to visualize the analysis

  • Asoftwarepackage

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Spatial Data

  • Estimates are that 80% of all data has a spatial component

    • Data from most sciences can be analyzed “spatially”

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What is GIS ?

  • A method tovisualize, manipulate, analyze, and display spatial data

  • “Smart Maps”linking a database to the map

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Database“Not Easy to Interpret”

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Visualization “Worth a Thousand Words”

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Two Ways to Input and Visualize DataThe World in GIS

  • Raster–Grid

    • “pixels”

    • a location and value

    • Satellite images and aerial photos are already in this format

  • Vector–Linear

    • Points, lines & polygons

    • “Features” (house, lake, etc.)

      • Attributes

        • size, type, length, etc.

Real world

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Combining Data From Many Sources

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Data For GIS Applications

  • Digitized and Scanned Maps

    • purchased, donated, free (Internet)

    • created by user

  • Data Bases– Tables of data

  • GPS– Global Positioning System

    • accurate locations

  • Field Sampling of Attributes

  • Remote Sensing & Aerial Photography

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Five Data Layers “Alike” Features






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Turning Data Into Information

“Spatial Analysis”– not just a map

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Asking A Question – Interaction

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Maps and Database are “Interactive”

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Multiple Databases can be Linked and Related

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Some Ways GIS is Used

  • Emergency Services– Fire & Police

  • Environmental–Monitoring & Modeling

  • Business– Site Location, Delivery Systems

  • Industry– Transportation, Communication, Mining, Pipelines, Healthcare

  • Government– Local, State, Federal, Military

  • Education– Research, Teaching Tool, Administration

    Wherever Spatial Data Analysis is Needed

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Network Solutions

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Ecosystem Management

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3D Mine with Well Data

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Environmental MonitoringToxic Plume

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Combining Various Display Methods

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Oil Spill and Contamination

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Site Location and Client Distance

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Modeling of Future Trends

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Clusters and Comparison of Data

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Loma Linda Hospital Facilities

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GIS on the Internet

  • Olympics


  • National Geographic Map Machine


  • Find a Home—

  • ATM Locator —

  • Store Locator —

  • GIS Info —

  • Login