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Chapter 16. Bearings, Lubricants and Couplings. Bearings. Used to reduce friction between two surfaces Different designs to accommodate rotational or linear motion Different designs for different load directions. Bearing Loads. Radial Load

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Chapter 16

Chapter 16

Bearings, Lubricants and Couplings


Bearings
Bearings

  • Used to reduce friction between two surfaces

  • Different designs to accommodate rotational or linear motion

  • Different designs for different load directions


Bearing loads
Bearing Loads

Radial Load

  • Load acting perpendicular to the axis of the shaft


  • Thrust Load

  • Load parallel to the axis of the shaft

  • Combination Load

  • Both radial and thrust loads applied to the bearing


2 categories of bearings
2 categories of bearings

  • Plain bearings

  • Rolling element bearings


Plain bearings
Plain Bearings

  • Operation is based on sliding action between 2 parts

  • Bearing will have a press fit into the housing and a clearance fit to the shaft

  • No moving parts

  • Also called sleeve bearings, journal bearings and bushings


Plain bearing materials
Plain bearing materials

  • Bronze-needs to be lubricated

  • Phosphor bronze-oil impregnated

  • Various plastics

  • These materials allow low friction movement


Rolling element bearings
Rolling Element Bearings

  • Have moving parts to reduce friction

  • Several types

    Ball Bearings

  • Most common

  • High speed applications


  • Roller Bearings

  • Cylindrical roller element

  • Higher load capacity, lower speeds

  • Several styles


Bearing symbols
Bearing Symbols

  • Bearings are purchased parts

  • Different symbols used depending on drawing type

  • Schematic symbols used for machine layout drawings


  • 3D models of products using bearings can use a simplified 3D model of any bearings in the product



Lubrication
Lubrication

  • Roller bearings require lubrication

  • Too much can result in high temps and bearing failure

  • Too little and friction will cause heat and failure

    Lubricants

  • Oil-slippery hydrocarbon liquids

  • Grease-semisolid, a fluid lubricant with a thickening agent


Assets of Oil

  • Easy to control volume

  • Travels well

  • Carry away heat

  • Carry away products of wear

Assets of Grease

  • Stays put

  • Less maintenance

  • Seals out moisture


Couplings
Couplings

  • Devices used to join two shafts together

  • 3 categories


1 solid couplings
1. Solid Couplings

  • Used only when driving and driven shafts are mounted to a solid base (can’t move around)


2 flexible couplings
2. Flexible Couplings

  • Compensate for unintentional misalignment

  • Prevent shock from being transferred between the shafts


3 universal couplings
3. Universal Couplings

  • Used when shafts are at an angle to each other (angle can change)

  • Also called universal joints


Flexible shafts
Flexible Shafts

  • Transmits power at angles and around corners

  • Helically wound wire designed to transmit rotary motion


  • TEST REVIEW

  • Mechanism

  • Linkage

  • Cam

  • Cam follower

  • Bearings

  • Plain bearing

  • Roller bearings

  • Ball bearings

  • Couplings

  • Flexible couplings

  • Universal couplings


  • Gear types and orientation of their shafts:

    • Spur

    • Bevel

    • Worm

    • Rack and pinion

  • Gear train problem

  • Plastic gear advantages (3)

  • Bearing loads list and explain

  • Assets of oil

  • Assets of grease


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