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Influences on Weather. What is weather?. Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. The state of the atmosphere includes: the amount of water in the air, the temperature of the air and precipitation. These aspects of weather have an effect on air pressure and winds. .

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What is weather
What is weather?

  • Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a certain time and place.

  • The state of the atmosphere includes: the amount of water in the air, the temperature of the air and precipitation.

  • These aspects of weather have an effect on air pressure and winds.


Water in the air
Water in the Air

  • Humidity-is the amount of water vapor in the air.

  • If there is enough water vapor in the air, clouds may form. Too much water vapor in the air at a certain location, the water will condense and fall to Earth’s surface as precipitation.


Relative humidity
Relative Humidity

  • If the air is at 100-percent relative humidity, sweat will not evaporate into the air. As a result, we feel much hotter than the actual temperature when the relative humidity is high.

We measure humidity with a hygrometer.


Temperature
Temperature

  • Temperature determines how much water vapor air can hold.

  • Warm air can hold more water vapor than colder air can.

  • If air that is warm and humid begins to cool, the water vapor may condense and fall as rain because the cooler air cannot hold as much water vapor as the warmer air can.


Clouds
Clouds

  • Cloud Cover- the amount of clouds in the sky

  • Temperature and humidity of the air affects the formation of clouds.

  • Clouds are made up of millions of tiny water droplets or ice crystals.

  • If there is enough water vapor in the air and the air cools clouds will form.


Air pressure
AIR PRESSURE

  • Air Pressure -the weight of the air in an area


Low air pressure
Low Air Pressure

  • Air pressure is determined partly by the Sun.

  • Because Earth is titled on its axis, it is heated unevenly by the Sun.


As the sun heats the air in some places the temperature of the air rises
As the Sun heats the air in SOME places, the temperature of the air rises.

  • Warmer air becomes less dense. This lighter, less dense air rises, creating an area of low air pressure.

  • Warmer air rises!!!!!!


High air pressure
High Air Pressure the air rises.

  • Areas of high pressure are caused by air that has cooled and become heavy.

  • As the air cools and becomes heavier, it sinks.

  • Air in high pressure areas tends to flow into area of low air pressure.


Barometer a tool for measuring air pressure
Barometer the air rises.-a tool for measuring air pressure

  • Air Pressure is also referred to as Barometric Pressure.

  • LOW-Warm temps, storms, and rain

  • HIGH-Cooler temps and clear skies



Answer-Air in low-pressure areas rises as its temperature increases. As the air rises, the heavier dense air in a high-pressure area has room to move into the space created by the rising, low-pressure air.

LOW-Warm temps, storms, and rain

HIGH-Cooler temps and clear skies


WIND increases. As the air rises, the heavier dense air in a high-pressure area has room to move into the space created by the rising, low-pressure air.

  • Have you ever wondered what causes wind?

  • Wind is caused by differences in air pressure.

  • Air pressure combined with temperature determines the speed of the wind.


How do we get winds of high speed
How do we get winds of high speed? increases. As the air rises, the heavier dense air in a high-pressure area has room to move into the space created by the rising, low-pressure air.

1. When high-pressure areas are near the low-pressure areas.

2. When there is a LARGE difference in temperature between the high- and low-pressure areas


Winds are named for the direction they flow and their speed
Winds are named for the direction they flow and their speed. increases. As the air rises, the heavier dense air in a high-pressure area has room to move into the space created by the rising, low-pressure air.

  • Prevailing Westerlies- this wind pattern affects our state (NC). The Prevailing Westerlies move weather from west to east.


Jet stream
Jet Stream increases. As the air rises, the heavier dense air in a high-pressure area has room to move into the space created by the rising, low-pressure air.

  • The jet stream is a river of wind that blows horizontally through the upper layers of the troposphere, generally from west to east, at an altitude of 20,000 - 50,000 feet, or about 7 miles up.

  • A jet stream develops where air masses of differing temperatures meet. For this reason, surface temperatures determine where the jet stream will form. The greater the difference in temperature, the faster the wind velocity inside the jet stream. Jet streams can flow up to 200 mph , are 1000's of miles long, 100's of miles wide, and a few miles thick.

  • There is a polar and subtropical jet stream.


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