The african american freedom struggle from the civil war to the twenty first century
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The African-American Freedom Struggle from the Civil War to the Twenty-First Century. Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Curt-Engelhorn Chair in American History Prof. Dr. Manfred Berg Summer Semester 2013. The Apex of Civil Rights Reform. The Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960

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The African-American Freedom Struggle from the Civil War to the Twenty-First Century

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The African-American Freedom

Struggle from the Civil War to the

Twenty-First Century

Ruprecht-Karls-Universität HeidelbergCurt-Engelhorn Chair in American HistoryProf. Dr. Manfred BergSummer Semester 2013

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


The Apex of Civil Rights Reform

The Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960

The Kennedy Administration and Civil Rights

Toward the 1964 Civil Rights Act

Toward the Voting Rights Act

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


CivilRightsActof 1957

  • EstablishesCivilRightsCommission

  • EstablishesCivilRights Division in theDepartment of Justice

  • Authorizes Department of Justice tosuestateofficialforviolatingcivilrightsandvotingrights

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Freedom Rides, 1961

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Voter Education Project, 1962-1964

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Eugene T. „Bull“ Connor, 1897-1973

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Letter from a Birmingham Jail

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Birmingham, April/May 1963

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


George C. Wallace, 1919-1998

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Medgar Evers, 1925-1963

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


March on Washington, 28.08.1963

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


I Have A Dream

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Birmingham, 15.9.1963

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Lyndon B. Johnson, 1908-1973

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


CivilRightsAct 1964

  • ProhibitsRacial Segregation in publicfacilities

  • Prohibitsracialdiscrimination on accountofskincolor, race, national origin, religion, and sex.

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party atAtlantic City, 1964

  • "We didn't come all this way for no two seats when all of us is tired".

    • Fannie Lou Hamer

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Robert Moses, *1935

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Freedom Summer 1964

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Mississippi is for Murder

  • Andrew Goodman, 1943-1964

  • James Chaney, 1943-1964

  • Michael Schwerner, 1939-1964

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


Selma, Alabama, 1965

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


The VotingRightsActof 1965

  • Covers all statesthatrequireliteracytestsandhave a fewerthan 50% of all eligibleadults registered orvotíng

  • Suspends all literacytestsfor 5 years

  • Federal registrarstakeoverregistration in partsofthe South

  • States coveredbythelawhavetosubmit all votinglawchangestothe Department of Justice for „preclearance“

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


The Impact ofthetheVotingRightsAct

19641966

  • Alabama110,000250,000

  • Louisiana243,000350,000

  • Mississippi29,000 175,000

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


CivilRightsReformsof 1964/65

  • Formal and legal equality?

  • Major breakthrough; achievementofgoalsforwhichblackshadfoughtanddiedfordecades

  • Additional lawsandcourtrulingsdismantledinstituionalracism

  • Part of a larger reformagendathat also includedeconomicopportunityandexpansionofthewelfarestate, e.g. War on Poverty

  • But: High expectationsremainunfulfilled. Black radicalization – White backlash.

Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg


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