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Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of Victoria. Proximity Effect in EBL by: Abhay Kotnala January 2013. Outline Introduction Proximity Effect: A Physical Insight Proximity Effect:Avoidance & Correction Conclusion References. Introduction.

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proximity effect in ebl by abhay kotnala january 2013

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

University of Victoria

Proximity Effect in EBL

by:

AbhayKotnala

January 2013

slide2

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Proximity Effect: A Physical Insight
  • Proximity Effect:Avoidance& Correction
  • Conclusion
  • References
introduction
Introduction
  • “Encyclopaedia Britannica on head of a pin”
  • Proximity Effect is inherent problem associated with EBL
  • Studied extensively theoretically and experimentally
slide4

The proximity effect is the change in feature size of pattern as a consequence of non uniform exposure in regions adjacent to those addressed by the electron beam

Proximity Effect

Pattern affected by proximity (left), After elimination of proximity effect (Right)

consequences
Consequences
  • Limits the resolution of EBL
  • Imposes restriction on the size and shape of the structures
  • Other Effects
    • Corners in the desired pattern become rounded
    • Gap spacing and line width are modified
    • Features may merge together or disappear completely
electron interactions a physical insight
Electron Interactions:A Physical Insight
  • Electron enter the resist and penetrate further into the substrate
  • Types
    • Forward Scattering
    • Backward Scattering
continued
Continued
  • Forward Scattering
    • Inelastic scattering
    • Small Scattering angle
    • Widening of the electron beam
    • Small contribution to proximity effect
  • Backscattering
    • Elastic scattering
    • Large scattering angle
    • Additional exposure to the resist in adjacant areas
    • Large contribution to proximity effect
proximity effect revisited
Proximity Effect(Revisited)
  • Direct consequence of Electron Scattering
  • Nonuniform distribution of actually receieved exposure by the incident electron beam
  • Two types of proximity effect
    • Intraproximity Effect
    • Interproximity effect
avoidance and correction
Avoidance and Correction
  • Improved/Optimized Mask Design
  • Optimize Exposure and Development condition
  • Effective process measure
    • High energy electron beam
    • Thin resist
    • Low atomic number substrate
    • Thin substrate
    • Multilayer resist processes
  • Utilize proximity correction software
    • Exposure dose modulation
    • Shape dimension adjustment technique
slide10

Most challenging problem in e-beam lithography

  • The physical phenomenon of electron scattering responsible for proximity effect.
  • There exists a trade-off in proximity effect correction between speed, complexity and accuracy.

Conclusion

references
References
  • Chang, T. H. P. (1975). "Proximity effect in electron-beam lithography." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology12(6): 1271-1275.
  • Browne, M. T., P. Charalambous and V. A. Kudryashov (1991). "The proximity effect in electron beam nanolithography." Microelectronic Engineering13(1–4): 221-224.
  • Mark A. McCord and Michael J. Rooks. Electron beam lithography. In P. RaiChoudhury, editor, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrica-tion, volume 1, chapter 2. SPIE Optical Engineering Press, London, 1997.
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