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Romantic Period. 1820-1900. Recap from Monday. Chopin: Polish “poet of the piano” Shy, rarely gave public recitals, played in intimate salons Short piano works such as nocturnes, preludes, mazurkas, études , and polonaises Program Music (as opposed to absolute)

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recap from monday
Recap from Monday
  • Chopin: Polish “poet of the piano”
    • Shy, rarely gave public recitals, played in intimate salons
    • Short piano works such as nocturnes, preludes, mazurkas, études, and polonaises
  • Program Music (as opposed to absolute)
    • associated with a story or specific idea
    • no lyrics
    • commonly represents birds, storms, bells, rivers, etc.
recap
Recap
  • Hector Berlioz: French composer
    • Known for innovative orchestration
    • Famous for Symphoniefantastique, a program symphony depicting his love for Harriet Smithson
    • We listened to the March to the Scaffold. Know about that.
  • Nationalism: Intense devotion and pride for one’s country
    • Modest Mussorgsky—Russian composer of Pictures at an Exhibition including “The Great Gate of Kiev”
    • Bedrich Smetana—Czech composer of The Moldau
    • AntoninDvǒrák—Czech composer who came to America to direct the National Conservatory in NY, spent summer in Iowa and gained interest in Native American and African-American tunes, wrote New World Symphony
peter tchaikovsky
Peter Tchaikovsky
  • Russian composer (1840-1893)
  • 6 symphonies, 1812 Overture
  • Ballets: Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, Nutcracker
  • Famous piano concerto
gustav mahler
Gustav Mahler
  • Austrian (1860-1911)
  • Jewish heritage, converted to Protestantism
  • Famous as a conductor in Europe and NY
  • 9 symphonies
    • Used chorus in 4 of these (like Beethoven)
    • Symphonies are very monumental in length and number of performers (one is known as “the Symphony of a Thousand” and is an hour and a half long with a huge orchestra, 8 solo singers, a boys’ choir, and 2 choruses
opera in the romantic period
Opera in the Romantic Period
  • Many works demonstrate exoticism, a fascination with foreign lands.
  • Giacomo Puccini: Italian composer of La Bohème and Madame Butterfly (Japan)
  • Giuseppe Verdi: Italian composer of operas very popular with the public
    • Nabucco—contains a chorus that became a national liberation hymn during Austrian dominance
    • Rigoletto, Il Travatore, La Traviata (somewhat scandalous topics)
    • Aïda—about an Egyptian princess
  • Serious operas often had tragic endings
richard wagner
Richard Wagner
  • German composer (1813-1883)
  • Famous for massive operas
    • The Ring cycle: a group of 4 long operas based on Nordic legends, very supernatural
    • He wrote the libretto (text) and the music. He also built a theater (Beyreuth) specifically for his operas and oversaw the rehearsals, costuming, and pretty much anything else.
    • These had music that resembled speech, gave no time for applause after arias, and gave new importance to the orchestra.
  • Personality
    • Very dark, stormy, and egotistical
    • He was in debt to many people and never repaid them
    • Anti-Semitic
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