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Cell Project. by Linda Xie and Jessica Pipitone Biology 6th period. background from. picture from. Basic Organization of Cells. text from. The prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus. The eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus. Basic Organization of Cells. text from.

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Cell Project

by Linda Xie and Jessica PipitoneBiology 6th period

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picture from


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Basic Organization of Cells

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The prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus.

The eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus.


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Basic Organization of Cells

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All biological membranes, including plasma membranes and all organelle membranes, contain lipids and proteins.


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Basic Organization of Cells

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  • Elements of cell

  • sorted by function

  • Growth

  • The nucleus The ribosomes The endoplasmic reticulum The Golgi apparatus The vacuoles The centrioles

  • Moving

  • The centriole The cytoskeleton Flagella


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    Basic Organization of Cells

    textfrom

    Getting rid of bad things in the cell

    The membrane Some vacuoles The mitochondrion The chloroplastThe cytoplasm

    Multiplying

    The nucleusThe centriole The membrane


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    Different Types of Cells

    There are two categories of cells:

    Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes


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    Prokaryotes

    Bacteria

    Prokaryotes are cells, but they don’t have a nucleus. They still have DNA though, its just bunched up in the middle of the cell. Bacteria is a prokaryotic cell.

    Paramecium


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    Eukaryotes

    Red Blood Cells

    Eukaryotes have a nucleus which is the only difference between them and a prokaryote. Plant, animal, and fungi cells are all eukaryotes.

    Nerve cells


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    Plant and Animal cells

    The main types of eukaryotes are plant and animal cells. Plant cells are in plants and animal cells are found in all animals (pretty self explanatory). Both have the same function for each living thing: to keep it alive. The only difference is on the inside. Plant cells have plastids, a vacuole, and a cell wall. Animal cells have centrioles and lysosomes that plant cells don’t have.


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    To Plant

    Cell

    Animal Cell


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    To Animal

    Cell

    Plant Cell


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    Cell Nucleus

    The cell nucleus is found only in eukaryotic cells. Usually it is round and the largest part of the cell. It stores the DNA which stores genetic information of the cell. The nucleus is made up of three main parts, the nucleolus, the nuclear envelope, and the chromatin.

    text from


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    Analogy of Cell Nucleus

    If the cell was your body, then ...

    the cell nucleus would function as your brain, which sends information out to the rest of your body (ribosomes) in order to create important things (proteins) to keep you alive and healthy.


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    Cell Nucleus

    The Nuclear Envelope

    Surrounding the nucleus is a thin membrane punctured with holes called nuclear pores that allow specific communication in and out of the nucleus almost like a security guard.


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    Cell Wall

    Cell walls maintain the cell’s shape, the direction of growth, and provide structural support. Not all living things have cell walls. Plant cells have a lot of chemicals added into their cell walls such as cellulose and lignin (for plant structure). The cell wall is located outside the plasma membrane.

    textfrom


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    Cell Wall

    Structure - non-living and composed of cellulose - cellulose fibrils created in alternating layers for strength - has pits that make it penetrable

    text and picture from


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    Mitochondria

    In the cell mitochondria are the main power generators. They convert oxygen and nutrients into energy for the cell to perform everyday functions.


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    Inside a Mitochondria

    Mitochondria are shaped like a bean and have two membranes. The inner membrane is where most of the energy is made.


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    How Mitochondria Make Energy

    “There's a slow fire in the mitochondria that takes the oxygen and nutrients and burns it all up to create energy," Teitelbaum says. The mitochondria's inner walls are coated with energy-making chemical reactors that take the fuel and pull it apart. Resulting in energy (ATP). text from.

    ATP


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    Vacuoles

    Vacuoles are like sacks that hold water, salt, protein, and carbohydrates in a cell. They’re in all plant cells and some animal cells have small vacuoles.


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    What Else Vacuoles Do

    Some small vacuoles are involved in transporting substances in the cell, they’re called vesicles. Flowers are their own colors because the liquid in the vacuole is that color. Also, lemons taste sour because the liquid in the vacuole is sour. Same goes for sweet plants.


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    How vacuoles help keep plant structure

    When you water a plant the water is taken up by the plant cells vacuoles. When the vacuoles are full it presses against the cell wall and the plant can then stand up straight. That’s why a plant that hasn’t been watered is wilted. text from


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    Endoplasmic Rectum (ER)

    The endoplasmic rectum is where lipids and other nutrients are made and modified. Its also involved in transporting material through the cell either to parts that need it or to the Golgi apparatus. There are two different sections (smooth and rough) of the endoplasmic reticulum.


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    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    The only reason this section is called “rough” is that there are Ribosomes covering the whole surface. These Ribosomes put the proteins they’ve made into the endoplasmic reticulum. Inside the protein is chemically modified.

    Ribosomes

    on the

    Endoplasmic

    Reticulum


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    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Smooth ER

    Rough ER

    This section of the endoplasmic reticulum has nothing on the surface so its called “smooth.” Its in charge of packaging protein for transportation through the cell . Its also in charge of combining lipids and releasing calcium.


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    Golgi Apparatus

    After the proteins leave the endoplasmic reticulum they go to the Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex. Here carbohydrates are connected to the lipids and proteins from the ER then sent off the its final destination.


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    What the Golgi Complex Does

    Has five to eight, membrane-covered sacs called cisternae that look like a stack of deflated balloons. Inside the Golgi complex modifies proteins and lipids that have been built in the ER and prepares them for shipping outside of the cell or to other locations in the cell.


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    How Protein gets to and from the Golgi Complex

    There are little vesicles that can attach and detach to the Golgi complex. They go to the ER, attach themselves, take in the proteins and lipids ready to be transported, then go back to the Golgi complex. There it fuses to the Golgi membrane and drops off the “goods” it has. Inside the Golgi complex acts like a factory and tweaks the proteins to fit where they will be sent to. Like a post office putting things in special boxes to fit where its going and what it is. Then another vesicle picks it up and will send it to either another part of the cell or to the outside of the cell for use elsewhere.

    text from


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    Ribosomes

    Protein is what all cells are made out of; many amino acids make up one protein. So Ribosomes are very important to cells since they take in the amino acids and put them together to make, the basic building blocks of all cells, proteins. Ribosomes are the smallest part of a cell, but there are the most of them.


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    The Structure of a Ribosome

    Ribosomes have no membrane and disassembled into two subunits when not actively making protein. About 40 percent of a ribosome is protein and the other 60 percent is RNA.

    RNA gives the instructions for building proteins and brings the amino acids to the ribosome


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    How Ribosomes Do It

    The ribosome reads the tRNA one code at a time, adding protein building blocks one by one. The building blocks are made up of amino acids attached to transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. For every code in the mRNA, there is another tRNA molecule that fits it exactly. As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, it selects the correct tRNA molecules. Each tRNA brings with it the correct amino acid, which the ribosome then adds to the growing protein, releasing the tRNA at the same time.

    REALLY COOL

    ribosome

    Movie

    (It’s a must see)


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    Cytoplasm

    Cytoplasm is the gelatin-like fluid inside the cell. It acts as a cushion for all the different parts so that they don’t bump into and break each other. Cytoplasm consists of mainly water, but some salt and other organic molecules.


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    Analogy of Cytoplasm

    If cytoplasm was a stew then....

    all the other parts of the cell (mitochondria, vacuoles, Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, etc.) would be the carrots, broth, meat, beans, and other ingredients in the stew.


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    Lysosomes

    Lysosomes are produced in the Golgi apparatus. They find and break down foreign invaders (such as bacteria) so they might be able to be used again. Or if they find the invader to be really harmful, then they will destroy it and remove it from the cell.

    text and picturesfrom


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    Analogy of Lysosomes

    Lysosomes are almost like the entire police force keeping the city safe and in order. If they find someone extremely (possibly bacteria), they will put that person in jail (removing it from the cell).


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    Plasma Membrane

    The plasma membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of a cell. It is a little penetrable so some things cross easier than others.

    Even with an electron microscope you can't actually see the detailed structure of a plasma membrane because it's too thin.

    textfrom


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    Plastids

    Plastids only are in plant cells and photosynthetic organisms. They are in the cytoplasm and have a double membrane surrounding them. The number of plastids in a cell varies depending on the environmental conditions and how the plant adjusts to them and the type of species the plant is.

    textfrom


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    Plastids

    Plastids store molecules like pigments (which give fruits and vegetables an orange or red color when they are ripe). They also store photosynthetic products taken during the summer and are stored for the winter and spring. They are very important for the storage of starch. Foods with a lot of starch contain many plastids. Potatoes have a lot of plastids.

    textfrom

    Potato plastids


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    Centrioles

    Centrioles are found in most animal cells and come in pairs. They are made of short microtubules that are arranged like a barrel. The two centrioles are positioned at right angles. During cell division, each centriole moves to the opposite sides of the cell and may function in cell division. They are found at the base of cilia and flagella (both are used for cellular motion) .

    textfrom


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    Animal

    Cell membrane

    Nucleus

    Ribosomes

    Endoplasmic reticulum

    Golgi apparatus

    Lysosomes

    Vacuoles (small or none)

    Mitochondria

    Cytoskeleton

    Plant

    Cell membrane

    Cell wall

    Nucleus

    Ribosomes

    Endoplasmic reticulum

    Golgi apparatus

    Vacuoles

    Mitochondria

    Chloroplasts

    Cytoskeleton

    Animal and Plant Cells

    Things in bold are things that the cell has that other doesn’t


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    Do you want to take a quiz?

    YES NO


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    What are the different categories of cells?

    A: eukaryote and plant

    B: eukaryote and prokaryote

    C: plant and animal

    D: prokaryote and animal


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    What are the different categories of cells?

    A: eukaryote and plant

    B: eukaryote and prokaryote

    C: plant and animal

    D: prokaryote and animal


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    What type of cell doesn’t have a nucleus?

    A: prokaryote

    B: animal

    C: eukaryote

    D: plant


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    What type of cell doesn’t have a nucleus?

    A: prokaryote

    B: animal

    C: eukaryote

    D: plant


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    What is the basic building block of all cells?

    A: amino acids

    B: water

    C: oxygen

    D: protein


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    What is the basic building block of all cells?

    A: amino acids

    B: water

    C: oxygen

    D: protein


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    What does the nuclear envelope do?

    A: allows communication in and out

    B: gets rid of unwanted things in the cell

    C: protects the cell from disease

    D: stores the important information


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    What does the nuclear envelope do?

    A: allows communication in and out

    B: gets rid of unwanted things in the cell

    C: protects the cell from disease

    D: stores the important information


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    How are the golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum related?

    A: they’re the same thing

    B: they eat each other

    C: they don’t like each other

    D: none of the above


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    You’re going to take a quiz!

    How are the golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum related?

    A: they’re the same thing

    B: they eat each other

    C: they don’t like each other

    D: none of the above


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    You’re done with the quiz and our cell project!


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