Biofuels. Developed by Beth Morgan Dept. of Plant Biology. Corn stover. Miscanthus. Hybrid poplar. Sugar cane bagasse. Switchgrass. Types of Biofuel: Ethanol. Ethanol can be produced using:. Biggest Suppliers. Increase in Production. Making Ethanol From Seed.
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Developed by Beth Morgan
Dept. of Plant Biology
Sugar cane bagasse
Ethanol can be produced using:
1. Grow and collect grain.
2. Grind kernels into meal.
3. Heat and enzymes convert starch to sugar.
4. Anaerobic respiration by yeast.
5. Alcohol (ethanolº is distilled out of mixture.
1. Collection, storage & transportation to refinery.
2. Dirt & debris removed from material and then shredded into small particles.
3. Heat, pressure or acid treatment. Enzymes in solution are used to breakdown cellulose, hemicellulose to sugars. Lignin is removed.
4. Syrup of sugars is filtered from solids.
5. Anaerobic fermentation by bacteria to produce alcohol (and carbon dioxide).
6. Further enzymatic breakdown of cellulose and lignin.
7. Anaerobic fermentation by bacteria to produce alcohol (and carbon dioxide).
8. Alcohol is distilled.
9. More water removed.
10. Stored for distribution and use.
Bio-diesel can be produced using:
Waste Vegetable Oil
For every unit of fossil energy used in the entire biodiesel production cycle, 3.2 units of energy are gained when the fuel is burned, or a positive energy balance of 320 percent.
(gain is from photosynthesis)
Emissions of major air pollutants from diesel engines
Switchgrass harvest in the Netherlands