Biofuels
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Biofuels. Developed by Beth Morgan Dept. of Plant Biology. Corn stover. Miscanthus. Hybrid poplar. Sugar cane bagasse. Switchgrass. Types of Biofuel: Ethanol. Ethanol can be produced using:. Biggest Suppliers. Increase in Production. Making Ethanol From Seed.

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Biofuels

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Biofuels

Developed by Beth Morgan

Dept. of Plant Biology


Corn stover

Miscanthus

Hybrid poplar

Sugar cane bagasse

Switchgrass

Types of Biofuel: Ethanol

Ethanol can be produced using:


Biggest Suppliers


Increase in Production


Making Ethanol From Seed

1. Grow and collect grain.

2. Grind kernels into meal.

3. Heat and enzymes convert starch to sugar.

4. Anaerobic respiration by yeast.

5. Alcohol (ethanolº is distilled out of mixture.

Ethanol


Energy Yield


Making Ethanol From Cellulosics: Cell Wall Breakdown


Making Ethanol From Cellulosics

1. Collection, storage & transportation to refinery.

2. Dirt & debris removed from material and then shredded into small particles.

3. Heat, pressure or acid treatment. Enzymes in solution are used to breakdown cellulose, hemicellulose to sugars. Lignin is removed.

4. Syrup of sugars is filtered from solids.

5. Anaerobic fermentation by bacteria to produce alcohol (and carbon dioxide).

6. Further enzymatic breakdown of cellulose and lignin.

7. Anaerobic fermentation by bacteria to produce alcohol (and carbon dioxide).

8. Alcohol is distilled.

9. More water removed.

10. Stored for distribution and use.


Algae

Jatropha tree

Palm oil

Camelina

Types of Biofuel: Biodiesel

Bio-diesel can be produced using:


Waste Vegetable Oil

Lye

Methoxide

Methanol

Washed Biodiesel

Methoxide

Water

Biodiesel

Biodiesel

WVO

Glycerin

Washed Biodiesel

Water

Making Biodiesel

Biodiesel


BioFuel from Vegetable Oil


Pros: Energy Yield


Pros: Energy Yield

For every unit of fossil energy used in the entire biodiesel production cycle, 3.2 units of energy are gained when the fuel is burned, or a positive energy balance of 320 percent.


Pros: Energy Yield

(gain is from photosynthesis)


Pros: Reduced Emissions

Emissions of major air pollutants from diesel engines


Cons: Loss of Land for Food Production


Loss of Rainforests


Water Use Increases


Poplar trees

Switchgrass harvest in the Netherlands

Soybean harvest

Soil Fertility


Price of Corn 


Food vs. Fuel?


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