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Lecture 4:. V HF O mnidirectional R ange (VOR). Learning Outcomes. At the end of this lecture, the student should be able to: Explain the basic workings of VOR Describe the purpose of VOR Explain advantages and disadvantages of VOR. V HF O mni-directional R ange. Introduction.

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V hf o mnidirectional r ange vor

Lecture 4:

VHF OmnidirectionalRange (VOR)


Learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

  • At the end of this lecture, the student should be able to:

    • Explain the basic workings of VOR

    • Describe the purpose of VOR

    • Explain advantages and disadvantages of VOR


VHF Omni-directional Range


Introduction
Introduction

  • VOR, short for VHFOmni-directional Range, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft.

  • VOR provide MAGNETIC BEARING information to and from the station.

  • “Omni-” means all and an Omni-directional range means VOR station transmits signal in all directions.

  • VOR function as marking for the BEGINNING, CENTER-LINE andthe END of airways.

  • In short word, VOR guide an aircraft from point A to point B, from point B to point C.


Vor equipment
VOR Equipment

VOR antenna at vertical

tail of aircraft

VOR aircraft equipment

-VOR antenna at

vertical tail of aircraft

-VOR receiver & indicator

inside cockpit

VOR Ground Station (antenna)


Vor ground antenna
VOR Ground Antenna

Stationary Antennas

Rotating Antennas

  • VOR station for broadcast the signal


Vor ground antenna1
VOR ground antenna

  • The VOR ground antenna is oriented to magnetic north.

  • Consists of :

    • Single Stationary Antenna at the centre

    • Rotating antennas

  • It produces 360° radials/tracks at 1° spacing.

  • These 360 bearings are known as RADIALS

  • VOR ground installations are strategically located along air routes and airport to ensure continuity of guidance.


Radials
RADIALS

360

Magnetic North

045

315

135º

270

090

135

225

180



How vor works
How VOR works

  • VOR receiver in the cockpit is tuning to the specific frequencies assigned for that VOR ‘s airport.

  • It is VHF frequency which is between 108-117.95 MHz.

  • After entering the frequency, the volume control should be turned up in order to confirm that the three letter identification code (Morse Code) is correct.

    • For example, KLIA airport has a VOR known as VKL-Victor Kilo Lima

  • The VOR station on the ground transmits two signals at the same time; one signal is constant in all directions, while the other signal is rotated about a point.

  • One from stationary antenna, while the other from rotating antenna.


How vor works1
How VOR works

  • When aircraft receives these two signals, an aircraft VOR receiver electronically measures the phase angle different between these two signals.

  • This phase angle different is translated as the MAGNETIC BEARINGwhich tell the pilot the aircraft angle direction to the VOR station.

  • This bearing angle also known as RADIALS.



Advantages of vor
Advantages of VOR

  • More accurate & precise flying:

    • The accuracy of course alignment of the VOR is excellent, being generally plus or minus 1 degree.

  • Reliable:

    • Can be used day and night.

  • Multiple number of route :

    • Provide multiple number of route ‘towards’ or away from each station.

    • These routes are like invisible highways , which the pilot can navigate to @ away from any location.


Dis advantages of vor
Disadvantages of VOR

  • Signal s can not be received at low altitudes (below 1000ft)

  • VORs are sensitive to the interference of terrain. The nearest mountains and buildings cause the VOR bearings to be stopped and interrupted.

  • Other disadvantages is VOR equipments are costly to maintain.


Question bank
Question Bank

  • VHF Omni directional range (VOR) is the primary navigational aid used by civil aviation for en-route navigation.

  • List out VOR equipments (2M)

  • Explain how VOR works (8M)

2.

What are the advantages of VOR (6M)

What are the disadvantages of VOR (6M)


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