Hs language and the mind prof r hickey ss 2006 first and second language acquisition
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HS: Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 First and Second Language Acquisition. Tatiana Prozorova (HS/TN) Irina Novikava (HS/TN) Alexandra Wolek (HS/LN) Vanessa Hollands (HS/LN) Verena Scheulen (HS/LN) Nadiya Sowa (HS/LN) Kirsten Leicht (HS/TN). Overview.

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HS: Language and the MindProf. R. HickeySS 2006First and Second Language Acquisition

Tatiana Prozorova (HS/TN)Irina Novikava (HS/TN)

Alexandra Wolek (HS/LN)

Vanessa Hollands (HS/LN)

Verena Scheulen (HS/LN)

Nadiya Sowa (HS/LN)

Kirsten Leicht (HS/TN)


  • Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

  • Variation in Child Language

  • Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition

  • Social and Discourse Aspects of Interlanguage

  • Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage

  • Contrastive Linguistics

Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

Tatiana Prozorova

Irina Novikava


  • main theories dealing with instruction in L2 acquisition

  • effectiveness of instruction

  • key principles for an effective instruction

  • instructions appropriate to each acquisition stage

  • ten things the teacher can do to improve instruction for ELL students


  • Grammar Translation Method

    • non-communicative approach that relies on reading and translation, mastery of grammatical rules and accurate writing

  • Audiolingual Method

    • non-communicative approach that involves heavy use of mimicry, imitations and drill. Speech, not writing is emphasised

  • Communicative Language Teaching

    • is based on the assumption that learners do not need to be taught grammar before they can communicate but will acquire it naturally as part of the process of learning to communicate

Basic theories of L2 acquisition

  • "Comprehensible Input" hypothesis (by Stephen Krashen)

    • learners acquire language by "intaking" and understanding language that is a "little beyond" their current level of competence

  • "Comprehensible Output" hypothesis (by Merrill Swain and others)

    • providing learners with opportunities to use the language and skills they have acquired, at a level in which they are competent, is almost as important as giving students the appropriate level of input

  • Affective Filter hypothesis (by Krashen and Terrell)

    • individual’s emotions can directly assist in the learning of a new language

Basic theories of L2 acquisition

  • Basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)

    • Context-embedded communication

      • provides several communicative supports to the listener or reader(objects, gestures, vocal inflections)

    • Context-reduced communication

      • provides fewer communicative clues to support understanding

    • Cognitively undemanding communication

      • requires a minimal amount of abstract or critical thinking

    • Cognitively demanding communication

      • requires a learner to analyze and synthesize information quickly and contains abstract or specialized concepts

Four key principles for an effective instruction

  • Increase Comprehensibility

    • involves the ways in which teachers can make content more understandable to their students

  • Increase Interaction

    • language skills are used in real-life situations

  • Increase Thinking/Study Skills

    • advancedthinking skills are developed

  • Use a student’s native language to increase comprehensibility

Examples of Instructional Strategies

  • Silent/ Receptive Stage I

  • Use of visual aids and gestures

  • Slow speech emphasizing key words

  • Do not force oral production

  • Write key words on the board with students copying them as they are presented

  • Use pictures and manipulatives to help illustrate concepts

  • Use multimedia language role models

  • Use interactive dialogue journals

  • Encourage choral readings

  • Use Total Physical Response (TPR) techniques

Examples of Instructional Strategies

  • Early Production Stage II

  • Engage students in charades and linguistic guessing games

  • Do role-playing activities

  • Present open-ended sentences

  • Promote open dialogues

  • Conduct student interviews with the guidelines written out

  • Use charts, tables, graphs, and other conceptual visuals

  • Use newspaper ads and other mainstream materials to encourage language interaction

  • Encourage partner and trio readings

Examples of Instructional Strategies

  • Speech Emergence Stage III

  • Conduct group discussions

  • Use skits for dramatic interaction

  • Have student fill out forms and applications

  • Assign writing compositions

  • Have students write descriptions of visuals and props

  • Use music, TV, and radio with class activities

  • Show filmstrips and videos with cooperative groups scripting the visuals

  • Encourage solo readings with interactive comprehension checks

Examples of Instructional Strategies

  • Intermediate /Advanced Proficiency Stages IV & V

  • Sponsor student panel discussions on the thematic topics

  • Have students identify a social issue and defend their position

  • Promote critical analysis and evaluation of pertinent issues

  • Assign writing tasks that involve writing, rewriting, editing, critiquing written examples

  • Encourage critical interpretation of stories, legends, and poetry

  • Have students design questions, directions, and activities for others to follow

  • Encourage appropriate story telling

Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve Instruction

  • Enunciate clearly, but do not raise your voice. Add gestures, point directly to objects, or draw pictures when appropriate

  • Write clearly, legibly, and in print—many ELL students have difficulty reading cursive

  • Develop and maintain routines. Use clear and consistent signals for classroom instructions

  • Repeat information and review frequently. If a student does not understand, try rephrasing or paraphrasing in shorter sentences and simpler syntax. Check often for understanding, but do not ask "Do you understand?" Instead, have students demonstrate their learning in order to show comprehension

Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve Instruction

  • Try to avoid idioms and slang words

  • Present new information in the context of known information

  • Announce the lesson’s objectives and activities, and list instructions step-by-step

  • Present information in a variety of ways

  • Provide frequent summations of the salient points of a lesson, and always emphasize key vocabulary words

  • Recognize student success overtly and frequently. But, also be aware that in some cultures overt, individual praise is considered inappropriate and can therefore be embarrassing or confusing to the student


  • The main theories dealing with instructions in L2 acquisition have been considered

  • Instruction can be both successful and non-successful

  • Four key principles for an effective instruction have been pointed out

  • Examples of concrete instructions appropriate to each acquisition stage have been introduced

  • http://www.nwrel.org/request/2003may/general.html

  • Rod Ellis Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press

  • Thank you for your attention!


Language and the BrainProf. R. HickeySS 2006Variation in child language

Aleksandra Wolek (Hauptstudium LN)


  • Characteristics considering first language acquisition

  • Basic requirements for first language acquisition

  • Variation in child language

    • Variation in rate

    • Variation in route

  • Types of variation

  • Direct & indirect influences

  • Summary

  • Conclusion

Characteristics considering first language acquisition :

  • It is remarkable for its speed

  • In normal conditions language acquisition generally occurs

  • Small differences in a range of social and cultural factors have, according to various studies, no meaning

  • Belief that there is some “innate” predisposition of human child to acquire language exists

  • TRUTH: each human child posses a language -faculty

Basic requirements for first language acquisition

  • Biological aspects must be fulfilled

  • This process requires interaction

  • Language must be culturally trasmitted

Variation in child language

  • Variation in rate

  • Variation in route

Types of variation:

Inherited attributes:

Sex, intelligence, personality and learning style

Social background:

Family structure, cultural environment, social group affiliation

Situation: setting, activity, number of participants

Child's linguistic behaviour

Style of linguisticinteraction: interpersonal relations etc.

Direct & indirect influences

  • Indirect influence:

    • Social background

  • Direct influences:

    • Inherited attributes

    • Situation

    • Style of linguistic interaction

Inherited attributes:

  • Sex

    no genetic superiority of girls

  • Intelligence

    correlation between language and intelligence strongly related to environmental variation

  • Personality and learning style

    no strong evidence for such relationship, still demands researching


  • Setting

  • Activity

  • Number of participants

    all factors are very significant

    for child's linguistic behaviour

Style of linguistic interaction :

  • Interpersonal relations

  • Parental child-rearing methods

    relationship between experience of

    linguistic interaction and patters of language learning is very complex

    and variable

Social background:

  • Family structure

  • cultural environment

  • social group affiliation

    child's linguistic behaviour depends, for sure, on all these factors, however, the size and nature of this variation is unknown


  • Characteristics considering first language acquisition

  • Basic requirements

  • Review of the major dimensions of variation in child's language behaviour

  • Evaluation of significance of these factors


  • It is still a “young” discipline

  • There is a need for further research

  • There is a need for a theory or theories integrating all observations and results


  • Wells, Gordon , “Variation in child language”, In: Fletcher, Paul and Garman, Michael 1997. Language Acquisition. Cambridge: University Press.

  • Yule, George 1996. The study of language. Cambridge: University Press.


Thank you for your attention!

Language and the MindProf. R. HickeySS 2006Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition

Vanessa Hollands (Hs/LN)

Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition


  • Introduction

  • Piaget‘s Theory

  • Vygotsky‘s Theory

  • Conclusion

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionIntroduction

Language acquisition does not take place in a vacuum. As children acquire language, theyacquire a sign system which bears important relationships to both cognitive and social aspects of their life.

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionIntroduction

Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition are

mainly concerned about how language, thought

and social interaction interrelate in the child‘s


Does social interaction influence the child’s language acquisition?

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionPiaget’s Theory

Piaget focuses on the child’s cognitive

development, which he describes as resulting

from the internalization of the means-ends

organization of the sensorimotor activity

achieved in early development.

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionPiaget’s Theory

He sees the children’s use of language as one

among many behavoirs following principles of

organization and mechanisms of development

which are themselves autonomous .

autonomy and causal priority

cognitive development is in principle both autonomous from language development

and causal prior to it

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionPiaget’s Theory

The nature of children’s language at any

particular time is explained as being merely one

of the many symptoms which reflect a

particular stage in their underlying cognitive


language as one phenomena among others, which can be explained in biological principles

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionPiaget’s Theory

The child’s cognitive development is relatively

autonomous, not only independent from

language, but also from social interaction.

social interaction as secondary

social interaction explained in logico-

mathematical principles

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionPiaget’s Theory


  • Adult-child interaction can affect children’s reasoning about social or nonsocial objects.

  • There are reasoning processes in adult-child interaction, which cannot be reduced to individual units.

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionPiaget’s Theory


The child’s egocentricity results from his lack of

decentering. His language, having private

characteristics, is at first not adapted to social

communicative situations. It becomes socialized at a

later point in development as in decentering the child’s

cognitive organization allows him to participate in social


child talks about what he does and is not

concerned about being understood

speech does not seem to have a real function

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionVygotsky’s Theory

Vygotsky’s approach to the inter-relations of

language, thought and social interaction is to

view language as a multifunctional and context-

dependent system mediating simultaneously

cognitive and social development.

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionVygotsky’s Theory

Vygotsky defines language as primary, context-

dependent and social natured.

Language development is the principal motor of

development, as it mediates the child’s participation in

both the intellectual and social life surrounding him.

cognitive development is not independent from signs

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionVygotsky’s Theory

He sees a constant interaction between

language development and cognitive

development, such that thought is neither

autonomous from language nor causally prior

To it.

The use of a sign system such as language are

necessary for the development of uniquely

higher mental functions.

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionVygotsky’s Theory

The cognitive development is necessary

dependent on the fact that language is


  • It’s a sign system which is simultaneously used for abstract representation

  • and for social interactive contexts.

    The context-dependent indicatory aspects of

    communication in social interaction are primary and

    constitute the foundation for the development of

    abstract reference-and-predication.

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionVygotsky’s Theory

Zone of proximal development

It can be generally described in terms of the

processes of social interaction between adults

and children which allow children to organize

complex series of actions in problem-solving

situations before they have the mental

capacities to decide on the actions on their


shift from interpsychological to intrapsychological


Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionVygotsky’s Theory

How does this shift in function take place?

  • According to Vygotsky’s principle of semiotic mediation, there are specifically communicative processes, and most importantly the processes that involve language, which make this shift possible.

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionVygotsky’s Theory


At first, speech accompanies ongoing actions in the context of utterance, serving as a means of social contact with others. At a later point, when speech has been differentiated it forms a system which is multifunctional for the adult:

  • used externally - social function

  • used internally – mental function

    change in different functions

Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionConclusion

Contrast between Piaget and Vygotsky:

  • Whether or not they give language development a special status in relation to other aspects of developments

  • Whether or not they see language as inherently social or more precisely as multifunctional

Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition

Thanks for your attention!

Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition


  • Maya Hickmann, “Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition”, In: Paul Flether &Garmen, Language Acqusition,

Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 06Social and Discourse aspects of interlanguage

Verena ScheulenHauptstudium LN

Social aspects

  • Socio-cultural models seek to explain

    • Speed of learning

    • Ultimate level of proficiency

      … in everyday communication

  • Accomodation Theory (Giles)

    • Convergence  Divergence

      • Speakers indicate cohesiveness or distinctiveness from a social group

      • L2 acquisition = long-term convergence

  • Acculturation model (Schumann)

    • Willingness or ability to become part of the new culture

    • Social distance

      • How do the L2 group and the target language group see each other?

      • Are they equal?

      • Does the target language group want the L2 group to become a part?

      • Etc.

  • See also stylistic continuum (Tarone) and Social Identity (Peirce)

  • Social aspects influence

    • The opportunity for conversations

    • The kind of conversations

    • The commitment to learning the language

Discourse aspects- the role of input and interaction

  • Foreigner talk

    • Ungrammatical

      • Often implies lack of respect

      • Certain grammatical features are left out, such as be, modal verbs (can, must), base forms instead of past tense, etc.

    • Grammatical

      • Slower pace

      • Simplified: e.g. shorter sentences, avoidance of subordinate clauses, no complex grammatical forms, lengthening of phrases, etc.


  • Negotiation of meaning

    • Example:

      „And then he put it in his knee.“

      „He put it on his knee?“

The relevance for L2 learning:

  • Foreigner talk = comprehensible input

  • Negotiation of meaning

    • negative evidence

    • corrected input

    • concerns aspects they have not mastered yet

  • See also theories by Krashen (Input hypothesis), Long (interaction hypothesis), Hatch and the ‚activity theory‘ based on Vygotsky


  • Social aspects determine

    • Extent/kind of contact

    • Commitment

  • Discourse aspects may contribute

    • Modified input

    • Negotiation of meaning


  • Ellis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: University Press.

Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage

Nadiya Sowa (Hauptstudium LN)


  • introduction

  • acquisition models

  • two types of computational model

  • conclusion

  • references


  • Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental structures and processes involved in the acquisition and use of language.

  • L1 transfer

  • the role of consciousness

  • processing operations

  • communication strategies

L1 transfer

  • L1 transfer refers to the influence of the learner’s L1 on the acquisition of a L2. The learner’s L1 is one of the sources of error in learner language, this influence is called negative transfer

  • Nevertheless, in some cases, L1 makes an acquisition of L2 less difficult.

    Example: The man whom I spoke to him is a teacher

  • positive transfer

  • The influence of L1 can also result in avoidance

    Example: Chinese and Japanese languages don’t contain relative clauses

  • Japanese and Chinese learners of English avoid the usage of these structures

  • On the other hand, L1 transfer may be reflected in the overuse of some forms

    Example: Chinese learners tend to overuse expressions of regret in English, because of norms of their mother tongue

L1 transfer

  • Influence of behaviourism: it was believed that habits of the L1 prevent the learner from learning the habits of the L2

  • contrastive analysis

  • In the early 1970s behaviourism falls out of favour – two developments

  • The first one – some theorists try to play down the role of L1

  • The other one (represented by Larry Selinker) – learners don’t construct rules in vacuum, they work with whatever information is at their disposal. Knowledge of L1 is included. Selinker identifies language transfer as one of the mental processes responsible for fossilization

  • According to Eric Kellerman, learners are able to distinguish between potentially transferable and non-transferable features

  • Example: Hij brak zijn been. (He broke his leg.) Het ondergrondse verset werd gebroken. (The underground resistance was broken.)

The Role of Consciousness

  • Stephen Krashen distinguishes between “acquired” L2 knowledge and “learned”. The first one is developed subconsciously through comprehending input during the act of communication, the second one is developed consciously through deliberate study of the L2

  • Richard Schmidt distinguishes between consciousness as “intentionality”and consciousness as “attention”

  • noticing

  • awareness

Processing Operations

  • operating principles

  • Avoidance of interruption and rearrangement of linguistic units

  • Avoidance of exceptions

    Example: My brother made me to give him some money.

  • Roger Anderson defines “macro principles”

    Example: “no+verb” –negatives to perform statements

    “don’t+verb” – negatives to perform commands

  • processing constraints

    multidimensional model

  • developmental axis

    Example: Gestern ich gehe ins Kino. (Yesterday I go to the cinema.)

    Gestern gehe ich ins Kino. (Yesterday go I to the cinema.)

  • variational axis

    socio-psychological factors

Communication Strategies

  • model of speech production

  • a planning phase

  • an execution phase

Two Types of Computational Model

  • serial procesing (presupposes „rule“ or „strategy“)

  • parallel distributed processing (rejects the whole notion of „rule“)


  • L1 influences the acquisition of L2 (positive and negative)

  • the role of consciousness is one of the most controversial issues in SLA

  • all acquisition models represent more theoretical material than practical application and demand further investigation


  • Ellis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: University Press.

Thank you for your attention!

Language and the mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 Contrastive Linguistics

Kirsten LeichtTN Hauptstudium


  • What I am going to tell you….

  • What is ‘Contrastive Linguistics’?

  • Interference

  • Differences in special areas:

    • Phonology

    • Morphology

    • Nominal area

    • Syntax

    • Semantics

    • Idioms and Collocations

    • Pragmatics

  • Conclusion

What is ‘Contrastive Linguistics’?

  • it means comparing the structures of two present-day languages

  • goal is an immediate desire like improving instruction in one of the languages examined

  • it is:

    • synchronically oriented

    • not concerned with genetic similarities

    • two languages

    • bound to a particular linguistic theory

    • divided into applied and theoretical sections

  • we will focus on the applied sections


  • transferring of structural features of one’s native language when learning a second language

  • positive and negative transfer

  • negative transfer is called interference

  • four main types of interference:

    • substitution: a learner uses an already acquired element for one he does not yet possess, e.g. [w] for [r] in [wein] rain

    • over-and under-differentiation: in early language acquisition clause types are under-differentiated, as more parataxis than hypotaxis is used; over-differentiation: use of several different verbs by English speakers of German, where Germans would just have machen

    • Over-indulgence and under-representation: repeated use of structures, words,…; lack of special structures, words,…

    • over-generalisation: e.g. Mama comed home

Contrastive Phonology

  • tradition of incorrect pronunciation, e.g. /berlin vs. ber/lin; pronounced consistently in an incorrect manner

  • transfer from principle in German to English, although it is incorrect; e.g. voiced vs. voiceless s after n,l,r – conversation

  • mixed pronunciation, e.g. Hifi [haifi] vs. [haifai]

  • allophonic differences, e.g. (ch) in Buch or Pech

  • contrastive stress

    • phenomenon of level stress in English where two or more elements have equal stress

    • e.g. /Second/World/War vs. \Zweiter/Welt\Krieg /Hong/Kong /Hong\Kong

    • different stress in noun and adjective, e.g. /content (noun) and con/tent (adjective)

Contrastive morphology

  • comparative forms of adjectives: in English: Romanic vs. Germanic, e.g. tall taller-tallest vs. terrible-more terrible-most terrible

  • two cases in English vs. four cases in German

  • affixation in German vs. Lexicalisation in English: e.g. ver- used as a prefix to indicate a reversal in meaning, in English different words


    kaufen-verkaufen buy-sell

  • compounding: German favours compounding whereas the English equivalents are lexicalised or arrived at by paraphrase, e.g.

    • snow-sleet vs. Schnee-Schneeregen

    • cup-saucer vs. Tasse-Untertasse

    • bissfeste Kartoffeln – crunchy potatoes

    • ein schmerzarmer Tag – a day with little pain

      one should resist to translate piece by piece

Differences in the nominal area

  • use of the definite article: not used with abstract terms, only if a qualifying clause or element follows, e.g.

    She is interested in philosophy. vs. The philosophy of Kant.

  • singular and plural:

    • formation of plurals in English, e. g. knife – knives or thief – thieves

    • formal plurals with singular meaning, e.g. contents – der Inhalt or means – das/die Mittel

    • Informationen – information, Verwirrungen – confusion

    • differences in singular and plural requirements, e.g.

      Hose – trousers, Schere – scissors, die Möbel – furniture

  • prepositional usage: no hard and fast rule,

    e.g. on foot – zu Fuss, by train – mit dem Zug

    to fill in – ausfüllen

    to stand out - auffallen

Contrastive Syntax

  • different complement types: complements are parts of a sentence which

    follow a verb

    e.g. He wants her to sing a song. (infinitive complement)

    Er will, dass sie ein Lied singt. (causal complement)

    He saw him running away. (participle construction)

    Er sah ihn weglaufen. (infinitive complement)

  • passive constructions: in some passive sentences English allows the original direct object to remain in its slot and only shifts the indirect object to subject position.

    e.g. They gave him the book. - He was given the book.

    i.o. d.o.

    Sie gaben ihm das Buch. - Er wurde das Buch gegeben.

    In German this is strictly forbidden.

Contrastive Syntax

  • prepositions:

    • preposition vs. no preposition

      e.g. Er ist Freitag abgereist. – He departed on Friday.

      1980 ist er nach München gezogen. – He moved to Munich in 1980.

      - prepositional distinctions; e.g. in time: rechtzeitig, on time: zur rechten Zeit

Contrastive Semantics

  • unusualness of English words: many words are not very common in everyday usage, e.g. sibling vs. brothers and sisters

  • differing range: e.g. Freundin – female friend, girlfriend

  • false friends: a word in the native language sounds similar to one in the foreign language; different meaning

    e.g. aktuell‘topical’actual‘tatsächlich’




  • equivalents: one word in German often has more than one equivalent in English and the other way round, e.g.

    glücklichhappy, lucky

    seitfor, since

    dressKleidung, Kleid

    gogehen, fahren

Idioms and Collocations

  • collocation: a sequence of words or terms which co-occur more often than would be expected

  • equivalents can have different collocations: e.g. krönend – crowning

    A crowning achievment. Eine Spitzenleistung

    Der krönende Abschluss.The final flourish.

    Ein preisgekröntes Buch.An award-winning book.

    A crowning achievment. Eine Spitzenleistung

    Der krönende Abschluss.The final flourish.

    Ein preisgekröntes Buch.An award-winning book.

    dictionaries don’t provide enough information on the usage of the words

  • idioms:

    • small number of idioms which are identical, e.g. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

    • idioms which are not quite the same, i.e. they are similar in their content, but slightly different in their form

      e.g. Zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe schlagen

      To kill two birds with one stone.

Idioms and Collocations

die Daumen drücken

keep your fingers crossed

ganz Ohr sein

to be all ears

Eulen nach Athen tragen

to bring coals to Newcastle

  • rhyme-motivated compounds vs. alliterations

    e.g. leagle eagle – StaranwaltKind und Kegel

    shop till you dropüber Stock und Stein,…


Contrastive Pragmatics

  • use of discourse particles, e.g. oder? in German as a discourse particle is not or? in English

  • third person reference: In England it is regarded as very impolite to refer to a third person who is present by means of a pronoun. In German it is quite acceptable.


  • in Contrastive Linguistics the structures of two present-day languages are compared to achieve an immediate aim

  • in many respects (phonology, morphology, syntax,…) English and German differ in their structure

  • learners should be constantly aware of these differences to avoid too much interference

  • teachers should be aware of the danger of interference and should prevent this by naming the differences and talking about them in class, so that pupils cannot make up negative transfer on their own


  • ELE Multimedia, Version April 2003

  • Crystal, D. (1997) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.

  • Fisiak, J. (1981) Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English.

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