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Developed & Presented by Edward J. Caropreso, PhD Watson School of Education University of North Carolina Wilmington [email protected] 910.962.7830 Director of Academics Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools Camp Johnson, NC January, 2011.

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Developed & Presented by

Edward J. Caropreso, PhD

Watson School of Education

University of North Carolina Wilmington

[email protected]

910.962.7830

Director of Academics

Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools

Camp Johnson, NC

January, 2011

Developing Assessment Literacy:A workshop on the relationship between instruction, assessment & evaluation


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information

  • 1. Describe validity; reliability

    2. Explain the relationship between high quality assessment and validity/reliability

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of instructors as student study supports

    2. Recognize the relationship between test item types & specific study strategies


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes1
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes2
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information

  • 1. Describe validity; reliability

    2. Explain the relationship between high quality assessment and validity/reliability

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of instructors as student study supports

    2. Recognize the relationship between test item types & specific study strategies


Workshop contents
Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context

  • Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

    • Validity

    • Reliability

  • Supporting Student Learning through Assessment

    • KSU Study Strategies; Test Preps

    • Improving Performance; MIT Test Strategies


Workshop contents1
Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.


Workshop contents2
Workshop Contents

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context

  • Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

    • Validity

    • Reliability

  • Supporting Student Learning through Assessment

    • KSU Study Strategies; Test Preps

    • Improving Performance; MIT Test Strategies


Workshop contents3
Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes3
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary


1 introduction context for training
1. Introduction & Context for Training

  • Knowledge-Practice Model of Assessment & Evaluation

  • Professional Vocabulary for Concepts


Knowledge practice model
Knowledge-Practice Model

Developing Professional Knowledge

Knowledge of Learner Achievement

Resulting from Instruction

Knowledge of Instructional Practice: Strategies & Activites (incl. assessment)

Dynamic Reciprocity


Knowledge practice model1
Knowledge-Practice Model

  • Developing Professional Knowledge


Knowledge practice model discussion activity
Knowledge-Practice Model(Discussion Activity)

  • What’s the current status of your professional knowledge?

  • How have you developed your knowledge of instruction, assessment and evaluation?

  • What are your expectations for developing your professional knowledge & practice?

  • What are your professional development alternatives?


Professional Vocabulary for ConceptsActivity: Review/id concepts you know well; compare/contrast with colleagues’/groups’

Resources & Databases

  • New Horizons for Learning

    • http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/assess/terminology.htm

  • Nat’l. Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, & Student Testing (CRESST @ UCLA)

    • http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/glossary.html

  • Coalition of Essential Schools: Defining Assessment

    • http://www.essentialschools.org/cs/resources/view/ces_res/124

  • System of Adult Basic Education Supports

    • http://www.sabes.org/assessment/glossary.htm

  • Beyond Confusion: An Assessment Glossary, by Andrea Leskes

    • http://ctl.stanford.edu/Tomprof/postings/448.html

  • Continuous Assessment: Practical Guide for Teachers


Professional vocabulary activity
Professional Vocabulary(Activity)

  • Review the glossaries

  • Identify the terms & concepts you know

    • Mark the ones you know & understand

  • Compare your list to colleagues’/groups’

    • What’s the same; what’s different?

    • Why are there differences?

  • What are the implications for professional practice given inconsistencies in the knowledge base?


Workshop contents4
Workshop Contents

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes4
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system


2 context for instruction
2. Context for Instruction

  • Educational Goals & Objectives

  • Models of Objectives

  • Working with Objectives


Educational goals objectives
Educational Goals & Objectives

  • Educational Goals:

    • “…those human activities which contribute to the functioning of a society (including the functioning of an individual in society), and which can be acquired through learning.” (Gagne, Briggs, & Wagner, 1988, p. 39; cited in Nitko, 2001, p. 23)

    • Goals are stated in broad terms that give direction and purpose to planning overall educational activities.


Educational goals objectives1
Educational Goals & Objectives

  • Educational Goals (or global objectives) :

    • Broad, complex learning outcomes that require substantial time and instruction to accomplish

    • Typically encompassing many specific learning objectives which require learner success on most/all to reach the general goal

      (from Airasian, 2001)


Educational goals objectives2
Educational Goals & Objectives

Educational Goals

  • UT Examples of Goals vs Objectives

  • More Examples of Goals vs Objectives

  • Airasian’s 3-Level Model


Models of objectives
Models of Objectives

  • Two Common Models: Mager & Gronlund

  • Mager Tips

  • Gagne & Briggs & ABCD Models

    • A Comparison of Models

  • Greenberg’s 6 Keys to Successful Performance Objectives


Comparison of formats seels glasgow 1990 exercises in instructional design columbus ohio merrill
Comparison of Formats[Seels & Glasgow (1990). Exercises in Instructional Design. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.]


Working with objectives
Working with Objectives

  • Understanding the Context of Learning

    • How do you make sense of learning?

    • How do you identify/describe expectations?

  • Putting Bloom’s Taxonomy to Work

  • Three Types of Learning

  • What Drives Statements of Learning: Active Verbs


Working with objectives activity
Working with Objectives: Activity

  • Identify & State 1-3 TLOs (goals; in your area)

  • For each TLO (goal), using the course materials, identify & state 1-2 knowledge & 1-2 performance objectives (ELOs) in at least two models we’ve reviewed

  • Compare your objectives with a colleague’s

    • Using Greenberg’s Criteria to review your objectives, how do they hold up?

    • What’s similar to your colleague?

    • What’s different?

  • Keep your objectives for later; we’ll use them again!


Workshop contents5
Workshop Contents

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes5
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non- objective) assessment


3 context for assessment evaluation
3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation

  • Establishing vocabulary & conceptual framework

  • Assessment and Evaluation:

    • What do they mean?

  • Relationship between assessment, evaluation and decision-making:

    • The role of time

  • What about instructional outcomes?

    • Instruction, assessment and evaluation

    • Developing Criteria


3 context for assessment evaluation1
3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation

  • Model of Assessment

    • Identifying & applying appropriate strategies to gather information for specific purposes &/or decisions

    • Determining appropriate assessment strategies

    • Appropriately applying strategies


3 context for assessment evaluation assessment model
3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation: Assessment Model

Purposeful Decision Making

Assess Instructional Practices:

Methods, Materials, Strategies & Activities

Assess Learner Achievement

Resulting from Instruction

Dynamic & Reciprocal


3 context for assessment evaluation2
3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation

  • Types of Assessments by Purpose

    • Bloom’s Taxonomy as Context

    • Aim High

  • Objective Assessment

    • Selected vs Constructed Response

  • Subjective (Non-Objective) Assessment

    • Writing/Generating Responses

    • Role & Control of Subjectivity in Assessment

  • Alternative Assessment

  • Authentic Assessment

  • Performance Assessment


3 context for assessment evaluation http vudat msu edu assessment
3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation [http://vudat.msu.edu/assessment/]

  • Objective Assessment

    • Objective assessments (usually multiple choice, true false, matching, short answer) have correct answers.

    • These are good for testing recall of facts and can be automated.

    • Objective tests assume that there are true answers and assume that all students should learn the same things.


3 context for assessment evaluation http vudat msu edu assessment1
3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation[http://vudat.msu.edu/assessment/]

  • Subjective (Non-Objective) Assessment

    • With subjective assessments, teacher's judgment determines the grade

    • These include essay tests.

    • Essay tests take longer to answer and they take longer to grade than objective questions and therefore only include a small number of questions, focusing on complex concepts.

  • Writing/Generating Responses

    • Role & Control of Subjectivity: Criteria &/or Rubrics


Workshop contents6
Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes6
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)


4 alternative assessment performance strategies complementing paper assessment
4. Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Alternative

    • To what?

    • Portfolio Assessment: An example

  • Authentic

    • With respect to what?

  • Performance

    • What types?


4 alternative assessment activity
4. Alternative Assessment : Activity Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Alternative

    • Possible examples?

    • Portfolio Assessment: Possible examples?

  • Authentic

    • Possible examples?

  • Performance

    • Possible examples?


4 alternative assessment alternative methods to document learning
4. Alternative Assessment: Alternative Methods to Document Learning

  • 3 Formal Models of Assessment:

  • Holistic:

    • Applying all criteria as a single judgment

  • Modified Holistic:

    • Adding levels of judgment

  • Analytical:

    • Judgment by criteria; weighting factors; scaling

  • Valid decision-making:

    • Matching the “tool” and the instructional outcome

  • Examples of Rubrics: Rubric Primer

    • Information Skills

    • Oral Presentation

    • Creating Rubrics


Workshop contents7
Workshop Contents Learning

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes7
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes Learning

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s


5 formative assessment information about teaching learning to improve instruction
5. Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Formative Assessment

  • Types of Formative Assessment

    • Objective assessments

      • Forms/versions of summative assessments that will be implemented for final evaluation of students

    • Alternative assessments

      • Forms/versions of summative assessments that could be implemented for final evaluation of students

    • Used to provide feedback on developing learning

      • Should not contribute to final grades

    • May or may not be “graded” assessments

      • Limited direct impact on final evaluation of student


5 formative assessment information about teaching learning to improve instruction1
5. Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Observation Strategies

    • Using explicit formal tools

    • Informal observations

  • Questioning Strategies

    • Taba Tables

  • Self & Peer Assessment Strategies


5 formative assessment information about teaching learning to improve instruction2
5. Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Alternative assessments

    • Used to provide feedback on developing learning

  • Examples:

  • Formative Evaluation Form

  • Summary Evaluation Form

  • Observation Record Form

  • Observation Guide Form

  • Observation Assessment Form

  • Open-ended Questions


Workshop contents8
Workshop Contents Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes8
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes Learning to Improve Instruction

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information


6 working with assessment tools strategies within local work context
6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies (within local work context)

  • Writing assessment plans

    • Who’s responsible for developing plans?

    • What’s the basis for developing plans?

  • Developing assessment tools & items

    • Who develops summative assessments?

      • Who implements summative assessments?

      • Who interprets data from summative assessments?

    • Formative assessments

    • Who develops formative assessments?

      • Who implements formative assessments?

      • Who interprets data from formative assessments?


6 working with assessment tools strategies
6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies work context)

  • Developing Objective Tests & Assessments

  • Planning Assessments

  • Types of Objective Assessments

  • Sample Table of Specifications

  • Judging Assessments


6 working with assessment tools strategies1
6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies work context)

  • Developing Objective Tests & Assessments

  • Resources online @

  • Writing Test Items

  • Testing Primer

  • Matching Items to Objectives


6 working with assessment tools strategies2
6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies work context)

  • Developing Objective Tests & Assessments

  • Test Construction Activity

    (online @ http://people.uncw.edu/caropresoe/)


6 working with assessment tools strategies3
6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies work context)

  • Developing Subjective (Non-objective) Tests & Assessments

    • See Test Primer materials

      (online @ http://people.uncw.edu/caropresoe/)


6 working with assessment tools strategies4
6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies work context)

  • Developing Alternative Assessments

    • See Test Primer materials

      (online @ http://people.uncw.edu/caropresoe/)


Workshop contents9
Workshop Contents work context)

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context

  • Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

    • Validity

    • Reliability


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes9
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes work context)

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information

  • 1. Describe validity; reliability

    2. Explain the relationship between high quality assessment and validity/reliability


7 assessment test construction technical features quality tools
7. Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

  • Validity

  • Reliability


Workshop contents10
Workshop “Quality” Tools Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context

  • Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

    • Validity

    • Reliability

    • Difficulty & Discrimination

  • Supporting Student Learning through Assessment

    • KSU Study Strategies; Test Preps

    • Improving Performance; MIT Testing Strategies


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes10
Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes “Quality” Tools

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information

  • 1. Describe validity; reliability

    2. Explain the relationship between high quality assessment and validity/reliability

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of instructors as student study supports

    2. Recognize the relationship between test item types & specific study strategies


8 supporting student learning through assessment
8. Supporting Student Learning “Quality” Toolsthrough Assessment

  • Improving Student Performance on Assessments

    • KSU Study Strategies

    • Test Preps

    • Improving Performance

    • MIT Testing Strategies


Developing assessment literacy
Developing Assessment Literacy “Quality” Tools

  • The END!!!

  • Hopefully, a beginning of improved professional practice!!!


Decision making for learning the role of assessment and evaluation

Edward J. Caropreso, PhD “Quality” Tools

Watson School of Education

University of North Carolina Wilmington

Assessment Workshop: Part 1 (June, 2007)

Revised

Decision-making for learning:The role of assessment and evaluation


A conversation with 3 components
A Conversation with 3 Components “Quality” Tools

  • A context for instructional decision-making

    • Establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework

  • Performance assessment as a model

    • Developing and applying criteria

    • Exploring formal models of performance assessment:

      • Holistic; Modified Holistic; Analytical assessment

  • Planning: Instruction to assessment

    • Expectations, outcomes, tasks & assessments

    • Developing tasks and assessments

      • Review of current assignments, tasks, tools

      • Development: Revisions and new constructions


Instructional decision making 1 establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework
Instructional Decision-making 1: “Quality” Tools Establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework

  • What about instructional outcomes?

    • Intent, expectation and instruction

    • Two models of instructional objectives

      • Gronlund: From the general to the specific

      • Mager: From the specific to the general

  • What’s the relationship between teaching and learning?

    • Instruction and assessment?

  • Some web sites of interest

    • http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/misc/glossary.htm

    • http://ctl.stanford.edu/Tomprof/postings/448.html

    • http://www.ericdigests.org/

    • http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9213/terms.htm

    • http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9213/


What about instructional outcomes
What about instructional outcomes? “Quality” Tools

  • Two models

    • Gronlund's General and Specific Objectives

    • Mager's Instructional Objectives


What about instructional outcomes1
What about instructional outcomes? “Quality” Tools

  • Gronlund's General and Specific Objectives

    • Gronlund’s claim: Performance-oriented objectives are effective with simple skills, but

    • Complex cognitive behaviors require another approach

    • Proposes that main objectives be expressed as general instructional outcomes

    • Each main objective should be elaborated in terms of specific objectives; linking general, abstract level with specific, concrete performances


What about instructional outcomes2
What about instructional outcomes? “Quality” Tools

  • Mager's Instructional Objectives

    • Must specify clearly what the learner should be able to do following instruction.

      • Uses behavioral terms ­ the actual, observable performance of the student

    • Specifies exactly what students must do to demonstrate that they have reached the course goal

    • Provides teacher with specific guidelines for determining whether course goals have been reached; Uses specific, behavioral terms as opposed to general terms (general or vague terms include: student will understand, appreciate, know, etc.)


More about instructional outcomes
More about instructional outcomes “Quality” Tools

  • Some useful websites on learning outcomes

    • http://web.bsu.edu/IRAA/AA/WB/chapter2.htm

    • http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/plan/plan.html

    • http://www.harding.edu/USER/dlee/WWW/objectives.doc

    • http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_4.htm

    • http://www.nbii.gov/datainfo/metadata/training/ttt/skills/pdf/objectives.pdf


Instructional decision making 2 establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework
Instructional Decision-making 2: “Quality” Tools Establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework

  • Assessment and Evaluation:

    • What do they mean?

  • Relationship between assessment, evaluation and decision-making:

    • The role of time

  • What about instructional outcomes?

    • Instruction, assessment and evaluation

    • Developing Criteria


A working model 1 developing criteria
A Working Model 1: “Quality” Tools Developing Criteria

  • Using a T-chart:

    • Instructional intent/expectation vs.

    • Student performance (and its assessment)

  • The task and the assessment:

    • Not the same but necessarily related

  • Expanding the chart beyond the “T”:

    • Identifying assessment criteria

  • Assessment and Evidence of Learning


Using a t chart
Using a T-chart “Quality” Tools

  • T-charts in education

    • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/tchart/

    • http://www.myread.org/organisation.htm

    • http://www97.intel.com/en/ProjectDesign/InstructionalStrategies/GraphicOrganizers/T_Charts.htm

  • T-charts in law

    • http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~econry/law2.doc


A working model 2 applying criteria
A Working Model 2: “Quality” ToolsApplying Criteria

  • From criteria as evidence to a “tool” for assessment and evaluation:

    • Checklists vs. Rating Scales

  • Whose tool is it anyway?:

    • What teachers and students should know to ensure learning occurs

  • Evaluation decisions and “grading” student performance


Performance assessment 3 formal models
Performance Assessment: 3 Formal Models “Quality” Tools

  • Holistic:

    • Applying all criteria as a single judgment

  • Modified Holistic:

    • Adding levels of judgment

  • Analytical:

    • Judgment by criteria; weighting factors; scaling

    • http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4524.html?detoured=1

  • Valid decision-making:

    • Matching the “tool” and the instructional outcome

  • Examples of Rubrics

    • http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4524.html

    • http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/instruct/general/rubrics.htm


Planning instruction to assessment
Planning: Instruction to assessment “Quality” Tools

  • Your expectations, outcomes, tasks & assessments

  • Developing tasks and assessments

    • Review: Current assignments, tasks, tools

    • Development:

      • Revisions and reconstructions

      • New constructions


Examples of instruction and assessment tools
Examples of Instruction and Assessment Tools “Quality” Tools

  • Rubrics and other assessment tools

    • http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4521.html?detoured=1

    • http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/instruct/general/rubrics.htm

    • http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/instruct/general/rubrics.htm

    • http://www.curriculum.org/csc/library/profiles/10/html/ELDBOP5.htm

    • http://www.inmotionaame.org/education/lesson.cfm;jsessionid=f8303421051155499527848?migration=&id=6_003LP&bhcp=1

    • http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/assess.html

    • http://www.ncsu.edu/midlink/ho.html

    • http://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/rubrics.shtml


Bloom s taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy “Quality” Tools

  • Introduction & Major Categories

    • http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm

    • http://faculty.washington.edu/krumme/guides/bloom1.html

  • Applying Taxonomy (Cognitive Domain/Action Verbs)

    • http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html

    • http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/bloom.html

    • http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/dalton.htm

  • Across the Domains

    • http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html

    • http://www.tedi.uq.edu.au/downloads/Bloom.pd

  • Psychomotor Domain

    • http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/educ_school2/docs/stai_manual/manual10.htm

    • http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/BloomsLD/index.htm

    • http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/health/lesson01b.htm


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