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Developed & Presented by Edward J. Caropreso, PhD Watson School of Education University of North Carolina Wilmington [email protected] 910.962.7830 Director of Academics Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools Camp Johnson, NC January, 2011.

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Developed presented by edward j caropreso phd watson school of education

Developed & Presented by

Edward J. Caropreso, PhD

Watson School of Education

University of North Carolina Wilmington

[email protected]

910.962.7830

Director of Academics

Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools

Camp Johnson, NC

January, 2011

Developing Assessment Literacy:A workshop on the relationship between instruction, assessment & evaluation


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information

  • 1. Describe validity; reliability

    2. Explain the relationship between high quality assessment and validity/reliability

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of instructors as student study supports

    2. Recognize the relationship between test item types & specific study strategies


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes1

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes2

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information

  • 1. Describe validity; reliability

    2. Explain the relationship between high quality assessment and validity/reliability

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of instructors as student study supports

    2. Recognize the relationship between test item types & specific study strategies


Workshop contents

Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context

  • Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

    • Validity

    • Reliability

  • Supporting Student Learning through Assessment

    • KSU Study Strategies; Test Preps

    • Improving Performance; MIT Test Strategies


Workshop contents1

Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.


Workshop contents2

Workshop Contents

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context

  • Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

    • Validity

    • Reliability

  • Supporting Student Learning through Assessment

    • KSU Study Strategies; Test Preps

    • Improving Performance; MIT Test Strategies


Workshop contents3

Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes3

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary


1 introduction context for training

1. Introduction & Context for Training

  • Knowledge-Practice Model of Assessment & Evaluation

  • Professional Vocabulary for Concepts


Knowledge practice model

Knowledge-Practice Model

Developing Professional Knowledge

Knowledge of Learner Achievement

Resulting from Instruction

Knowledge of Instructional Practice: Strategies & Activites (incl. assessment)

Dynamic Reciprocity


Knowledge practice model1

Knowledge-Practice Model

  • Developing Professional Knowledge


Knowledge practice model discussion activity

Knowledge-Practice Model(Discussion Activity)

  • What’s the current status of your professional knowledge?

  • How have you developed your knowledge of instruction, assessment and evaluation?

  • What are your expectations for developing your professional knowledge & practice?

  • What are your professional development alternatives?


Developed presented by edward j caropreso phd watson school of education

Professional Vocabulary for ConceptsActivity: Review/id concepts you know well; compare/contrast with colleagues’/groups’

Resources & Databases

  • New Horizons for Learning

    • http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/assess/terminology.htm

  • Nat’l. Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, & Student Testing (CRESST @ UCLA)

    • http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/glossary.html

  • Coalition of Essential Schools: Defining Assessment

    • http://www.essentialschools.org/cs/resources/view/ces_res/124

  • System of Adult Basic Education Supports

    • http://www.sabes.org/assessment/glossary.htm

  • Beyond Confusion: An Assessment Glossary, by Andrea Leskes

    • http://ctl.stanford.edu/Tomprof/postings/448.html

  • Continuous Assessment: Practical Guide for Teachers


Professional vocabulary activity

Professional Vocabulary(Activity)

  • Review the glossaries

  • Identify the terms & concepts you know

    • Mark the ones you know & understand

  • Compare your list to colleagues’/groups’

    • What’s the same; what’s different?

    • Why are there differences?

  • What are the implications for professional practice given inconsistencies in the knowledge base?


Workshop contents4

Workshop Contents

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes4

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system


2 context for instruction

2. Context for Instruction

  • Educational Goals & Objectives

  • Models of Objectives

  • Working with Objectives


Educational goals objectives

Educational Goals & Objectives

  • Educational Goals:

    • “…those human activities which contribute to the functioning of a society (including the functioning of an individual in society), and which can be acquired through learning.” (Gagne, Briggs, & Wagner, 1988, p. 39; cited in Nitko, 2001, p. 23)

    • Goals are stated in broad terms that give direction and purpose to planning overall educational activities.


Educational goals objectives1

Educational Goals & Objectives

  • Educational Goals (or global objectives) :

    • Broad, complex learning outcomes that require substantial time and instruction to accomplish

    • Typically encompassing many specific learning objectives which require learner success on most/all to reach the general goal

      (from Airasian, 2001)


Educational goals objectives2

Educational Goals & Objectives

Educational Goals

  • UT Examples of Goals vs Objectives

  • More Examples of Goals vs Objectives

  • Airasian’s 3-Level Model


Models of objectives

Models of Objectives

  • Two Common Models: Mager & Gronlund

  • Mager Tips

  • Gagne & Briggs & ABCD Models

    • A Comparison of Models

  • Greenberg’s 6 Keys to Successful Performance Objectives


Comparison of formats seels glasgow 1990 exercises in instructional design columbus ohio merrill

Comparison of Formats[Seels & Glasgow (1990). Exercises in Instructional Design. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.]


Working with objectives

Working with Objectives

  • Understanding the Context of Learning

    • How do you make sense of learning?

    • How do you identify/describe expectations?

  • Putting Bloom’s Taxonomy to Work

  • Three Types of Learning

  • What Drives Statements of Learning: Active Verbs


Working with objectives activity

Working with Objectives: Activity

  • Identify & State 1-3 TLOs (goals; in your area)

  • For each TLO (goal), using the course materials, identify & state 1-2 knowledge & 1-2 performance objectives (ELOs) in at least two models we’ve reviewed

  • Compare your objectives with a colleague’s

    • Using Greenberg’s Criteria to review your objectives, how do they hold up?

    • What’s similar to your colleague?

    • What’s different?

  • Keep your objectives for later; we’ll use them again!


Workshop contents5

Workshop Contents

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes5

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment


3 context for assessment evaluation

3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation

  • Establishing vocabulary & conceptual framework

  • Assessment and Evaluation:

    • What do they mean?

  • Relationship between assessment, evaluation and decision-making:

    • The role of time

  • What about instructional outcomes?

    • Instruction, assessment and evaluation

    • Developing Criteria


3 context for assessment evaluation1

3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation

  • Model of Assessment

    • Identifying & applying appropriate strategies to gather information for specific purposes &/or decisions

    • Determining appropriate assessment strategies

    • Appropriately applying strategies


3 context for assessment evaluation assessment model

3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation: Assessment Model

Purposeful Decision Making

Assess Instructional Practices:

Methods, Materials, Strategies & Activities

Assess Learner Achievement

Resulting from Instruction

Dynamic & Reciprocal


3 context for assessment evaluation2

3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation

  • Types of Assessments by Purpose

    • Bloom’s Taxonomy as Context

    • Aim High

  • Objective Assessment

    • Selected vs Constructed Response

  • Subjective (Non-Objective) Assessment

    • Writing/Generating Responses

    • Role & Control of Subjectivity in Assessment

  • Alternative Assessment

  • Authentic Assessment

  • Performance Assessment


3 context for assessment evaluation http vudat msu edu assessment

3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation [http://vudat.msu.edu/assessment/]

  • Objective Assessment

    • Objective assessments (usually multiple choice, true false, matching, short answer) have correct answers.

    • These are good for testing recall of facts and can be automated.

    • Objective tests assume that there are true answers and assume that all students should learn the same things.


3 context for assessment evaluation http vudat msu edu assessment1

3. Context for Assessment & Evaluation[http://vudat.msu.edu/assessment/]

  • Subjective (Non-Objective) Assessment

    • With subjective assessments, teacher's judgment determines the grade

    • These include essay tests.

    • Essay tests take longer to answer and they take longer to grade than objective questions and therefore only include a small number of questions, focusing on complex concepts.

  • Writing/Generating Responses

    • Role & Control of Subjectivity: Criteria &/or Rubrics


Workshop contents6

Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes6

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)


4 alternative assessment performance strategies complementing paper assessment

4. Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Alternative

    • To what?

    • Portfolio Assessment: An example

  • Authentic

    • With respect to what?

  • Performance

    • What types?


4 alternative assessment activity

4. Alternative Assessment : Activity

  • Alternative

    • Possible examples?

    • Portfolio Assessment: Possible examples?

  • Authentic

    • Possible examples?

  • Performance

    • Possible examples?


4 alternative assessment alternative methods to document learning

4. Alternative Assessment: Alternative Methods to Document Learning

  • 3 Formal Models of Assessment:

  • Holistic:

    • Applying all criteria as a single judgment

  • Modified Holistic:

    • Adding levels of judgment

  • Analytical:

    • Judgment by criteria; weighting factors; scaling

  • Valid decision-making:

    • Matching the “tool” and the instructional outcome

  • Examples of Rubrics: Rubric Primer

    • Information Skills

    • Oral Presentation

    • Creating Rubrics


Workshop contents7

Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes7

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s


5 formative assessment information about teaching learning to improve instruction

5. Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Formative Assessment

  • Types of Formative Assessment

    • Objective assessments

      • Forms/versions of summative assessments that will be implemented for final evaluation of students

    • Alternative assessments

      • Forms/versions of summative assessments that could be implemented for final evaluation of students

    • Used to provide feedback on developing learning

      • Should not contribute to final grades

    • May or may not be “graded” assessments

      • Limited direct impact on final evaluation of student


5 formative assessment information about teaching learning to improve instruction1

5. Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Observation Strategies

    • Using explicit formal tools

    • Informal observations

  • Questioning Strategies

    • Taba Tables

  • Self & Peer Assessment Strategies


5 formative assessment information about teaching learning to improve instruction2

5. Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Alternative assessments

    • Used to provide feedback on developing learning

  • Examples:

  • Formative Evaluation Form

  • Summary Evaluation Form

  • Observation Record Form

  • Observation Guide Form

  • Observation Assessment Form

  • Open-ended Questions


Workshop contents8

Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes8

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information


6 working with assessment tools strategies within local work context

6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies (within local work context)

  • Writing assessment plans

    • Who’s responsible for developing plans?

    • What’s the basis for developing plans?

  • Developing assessment tools & items

    • Who develops summative assessments?

      • Who implements summative assessments?

      • Who interprets data from summative assessments?

    • Formative assessments

    • Who develops formative assessments?

      • Who implements formative assessments?

      • Who interprets data from formative assessments?


6 working with assessment tools strategies

6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies

  • Developing Objective Tests & Assessments

  • Planning Assessments

  • Types of Objective Assessments

  • Sample Table of Specifications

  • Judging Assessments


6 working with assessment tools strategies1

6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies

  • Developing Objective Tests & Assessments

  • Resources online @

  • Writing Test Items

  • Testing Primer

  • Matching Items to Objectives


6 working with assessment tools strategies2

6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies

  • Developing Objective Tests & Assessments

  • Test Construction Activity

    (online @ http://people.uncw.edu/caropresoe/)


6 working with assessment tools strategies3

6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies

  • Developing Subjective (Non-objective) Tests & Assessments

    • See Test Primer materials

      (online @ http://people.uncw.edu/caropresoe/)


6 working with assessment tools strategies4

6. Working with Assessment Tools & Strategies

  • Developing Alternative Assessments

    • See Test Primer materials

      (online @ http://people.uncw.edu/caropresoe/)


Workshop contents9

Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context

  • Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

    • Validity

    • Reliability


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes9

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information

  • 1. Describe validity; reliability

    2. Explain the relationship between high quality assessment and validity/reliability


7 assessment test construction technical features quality tools

7. Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

  • Validity

  • Reliability


Workshop contents10

Workshop Contents

  • Introduction & Context for Training

    • Knowledge-Practice Model

    • Professional Vocabulary & Concepts

  • Context for Instruction

    • Educational Goals & Objectives

    • Models of Objectives

    • Working with Objectives

  • Context for Assessment & Evaluation

    • Role of Information for Decision-making

      • Types of data related to types of decisions

    • Assessment Model

    • Types of Assessments

      • Objective vs Subjective, Etc.

  • Alternative Assessment: Performance Strategies Complementing Paper Assessment

  • Formative Assessment: Information about Teaching & Learning to Improve Instruction

  • Working with Assessment Tools/Strategies: Writing assessment plans; developing assessment items within local work context

  • Assessment & Test Construction: Technical Features & “Quality” Tools

    • Validity

    • Reliability

    • Difficulty & Discrimination

  • Supporting Student Learning through Assessment

    • KSU Study Strategies; Test Preps

    • Improving Performance; MIT Testing Strategies


Developing assessment literacy learning outcomes10

Developing Assessment Literacy: Learning Outcomes

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between components of professional practice (Inst; Asmt; Eval)

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between professional vocabulary and practice

    3. Recognize/value the use of professional vocabulary

  • 1. Recognize/value the relationship between goals/objectives, instruction & assessment/evaluation

    2. Recognize differences between objectives models

    3. Write objectives using a specific model

    4. Critique objectives using a specified evaluation system

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of appropriate information in decision-making

    2. Recognize/value the relationship between types of assessment & resulting information

    3. State the difference between objective & subjective (non-objective) assessment

  • 1. State the difference between traditional & alternative assessment models

    2. State the difference between models of alternative assessment

    3. State the purpose/s for rubrics in assessment

    4. Identify appropriate applications of rubrics (in specific assessment settings/contexts)

  • 1. Describe formative assessment strategies

    2. State appropriate applications for formative assessment/s

  • 1. Recognize/value the need for systematic planning for assessment

    2. Evaluate item types for given applications/purposes

    3. Construct items to meet specific Los in given learning domains

    4. Evaluate items/tests as to purpose/use of assessment information

  • 1. Describe validity; reliability

    2. Explain the relationship between high quality assessment and validity/reliability

  • 1. Recognize/value the role of instructors as student study supports

    2. Recognize the relationship between test item types & specific study strategies


8 supporting student learning through assessment

8. Supporting Student Learning through Assessment

  • Improving Student Performance on Assessments

    • KSU Study Strategies

    • Test Preps

    • Improving Performance

    • MIT Testing Strategies


Developing assessment literacy

Developing Assessment Literacy

  • The END!!!

  • Hopefully, a beginning of improved professional practice!!!


Decision making for learning the role of assessment and evaluation

Edward J. Caropreso, PhD

Watson School of Education

University of North Carolina Wilmington

Assessment Workshop: Part 1 (June, 2007)

Revised

Decision-making for learning:The role of assessment and evaluation


A conversation with 3 components

A Conversation with 3 Components

  • A context for instructional decision-making

    • Establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework

  • Performance assessment as a model

    • Developing and applying criteria

    • Exploring formal models of performance assessment:

      • Holistic; Modified Holistic; Analytical assessment

  • Planning: Instruction to assessment

    • Expectations, outcomes, tasks & assessments

    • Developing tasks and assessments

      • Review of current assignments, tasks, tools

      • Development: Revisions and new constructions


Instructional decision making 1 establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework

Instructional Decision-making 1: Establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework

  • What about instructional outcomes?

    • Intent, expectation and instruction

    • Two models of instructional objectives

      • Gronlund: From the general to the specific

      • Mager: From the specific to the general

  • What’s the relationship between teaching and learning?

    • Instruction and assessment?

  • Some web sites of interest

    • http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/misc/glossary.htm

    • http://ctl.stanford.edu/Tomprof/postings/448.html

    • http://www.ericdigests.org/

    • http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9213/terms.htm

    • http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9213/


What about instructional outcomes

What about instructional outcomes?

  • Two models

    • Gronlund's General and Specific Objectives

    • Mager's Instructional Objectives


What about instructional outcomes1

What about instructional outcomes?

  • Gronlund's General and Specific Objectives

    • Gronlund’s claim: Performance-oriented objectives are effective with simple skills, but

    • Complex cognitive behaviors require another approach

    • Proposes that main objectives be expressed as general instructional outcomes

    • Each main objective should be elaborated in terms of specific objectives; linking general, abstract level with specific, concrete performances


What about instructional outcomes2

What about instructional outcomes?

  • Mager's Instructional Objectives

    • Must specify clearly what the learner should be able to do following instruction.

      • Uses behavioral terms ­ the actual, observable performance of the student

    • Specifies exactly what students must do to demonstrate that they have reached the course goal

    • Provides teacher with specific guidelines for determining whether course goals have been reached; Uses specific, behavioral terms as opposed to general terms (general or vague terms include: student will understand, appreciate, know, etc.)


More about instructional outcomes

More about instructional outcomes

  • Some useful websites on learning outcomes

    • http://web.bsu.edu/IRAA/AA/WB/chapter2.htm

    • http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/plan/plan.html

    • http://www.harding.edu/USER/dlee/WWW/objectives.doc

    • http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_4.htm

    • http://www.nbii.gov/datainfo/metadata/training/ttt/skills/pdf/objectives.pdf


Instructional decision making 2 establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework

Instructional Decision-making 2: Establishing vocabulary and a conceptual framework

  • Assessment and Evaluation:

    • What do they mean?

  • Relationship between assessment, evaluation and decision-making:

    • The role of time

  • What about instructional outcomes?

    • Instruction, assessment and evaluation

    • Developing Criteria


A working model 1 developing criteria

A Working Model 1: Developing Criteria

  • Using a T-chart:

    • Instructional intent/expectation vs.

    • Student performance (and its assessment)

  • The task and the assessment:

    • Not the same but necessarily related

  • Expanding the chart beyond the “T”:

    • Identifying assessment criteria

  • Assessment and Evidence of Learning


Using a t chart

Using a T-chart

  • T-charts in education

    • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/tchart/

    • http://www.myread.org/organisation.htm

    • http://www97.intel.com/en/ProjectDesign/InstructionalStrategies/GraphicOrganizers/T_Charts.htm

  • T-charts in law

    • http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~econry/law2.doc


A working model 2 applying criteria

A Working Model 2: Applying Criteria

  • From criteria as evidence to a “tool” for assessment and evaluation:

    • Checklists vs. Rating Scales

  • Whose tool is it anyway?:

    • What teachers and students should know to ensure learning occurs

  • Evaluation decisions and “grading” student performance


Performance assessment 3 formal models

Performance Assessment: 3 Formal Models

  • Holistic:

    • Applying all criteria as a single judgment

  • Modified Holistic:

    • Adding levels of judgment

  • Analytical:

    • Judgment by criteria; weighting factors; scaling

    • http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4524.html?detoured=1

  • Valid decision-making:

    • Matching the “tool” and the instructional outcome

  • Examples of Rubrics

    • http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4524.html

    • http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/instruct/general/rubrics.htm


Planning instruction to assessment

Planning: Instruction to assessment

  • Your expectations, outcomes, tasks & assessments

  • Developing tasks and assessments

    • Review: Current assignments, tasks, tools

    • Development:

      • Revisions and reconstructions

      • New constructions


Examples of instruction and assessment tools

Examples of Instruction and Assessment Tools

  • Rubrics and other assessment tools

    • http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4521.html?detoured=1

    • http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/instruct/general/rubrics.htm

    • http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/instruct/general/rubrics.htm

    • http://www.curriculum.org/csc/library/profiles/10/html/ELDBOP5.htm

    • http://www.inmotionaame.org/education/lesson.cfm;jsessionid=f8303421051155499527848?migration=&id=6_003LP&bhcp=1

    • http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/assess.html

    • http://www.ncsu.edu/midlink/ho.html

    • http://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/rubrics.shtml


Bloom s taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy

  • Introduction & Major Categories

    • http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm

    • http://faculty.washington.edu/krumme/guides/bloom1.html

  • Applying Taxonomy (Cognitive Domain/Action Verbs)

    • http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html

    • http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/bloom.html

    • http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/dalton.htm

  • Across the Domains

    • http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html

    • http://www.tedi.uq.edu.au/downloads/Bloom.pd

  • Psychomotor Domain

    • http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/educ_school2/docs/stai_manual/manual10.htm

    • http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/BloomsLD/index.htm

    • http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/health/lesson01b.htm


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