States of consciousness Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen NICI – Department of Biological Psychology Radboud University Nijmegen The Netherlands [email protected] States of consciousness. Lecture 4. Psychoactive drugs modulating consciousness. PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND CONSCIOUSNESS.
States of consciousness
Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen
NICI – Department of Biological Psychology
Radboud University Nijmegen
PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND CONSCIOUSNESS
THREE MAIN GROUPS OF DRUGS MODULATE CONSCIOUSNESS
AMPHETAMINES – COCAINE – CAFFEINE - NICOTINE
HYPNOTICS – SEDATIVES – ANXIOLYTICS
BARBITURATES – BENZODIAZEPINES
PSYCHODELICS (MIND-ALTERING DRUGS)
ALCOHOL - MESCALINE – LSD – PSYLOCYBINE – OPIATES
BALANCE BETWEEN EXCITATORY AND INHIBITORY SYSTEMS
HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES
BARBITURATESSince 1903 Fischer and von Mering - efficient drugs - high toxicity - modulate chloride channels
BENZODIAZEPINESSince1960 Sternbach – safe and efficient – modulate GABA-system
The valium structure
EEFFECTS OF BENZODIAZEPINES
·SEDATIVE / HYPNOTIC
The AIM model may be used to think about the state of the brain in conditions other than sleep. For example, when all three state values fall and the AIM points move to the left lower front corner, the result is coma. Hallucination would be the effect when the internal stimulus strength increases during waking, and AIM moves to the right upper front corner. AIM moves to the left upper rear corner when external stimulus strength is increased, as in electroshock therapy. Whether or not these assumptions are correct can now be tested experimentally.
Natives of Amazon prepare a brew of ‘ayahuasca’ (‘vine of the dead, or souls’). With this tea containing powerful hallucinogenic alkoloids, interior sounds are commonly heard, often triggering spontaneous vocalisations.
When Coca-Cola was first produced, there was a clear reason why it relieved fatigue: It contained cocaine.
a- Opiumanta- NaloxonMorphineHeroineMethadon ……