States of consciousness
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States of consciousness Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen NICI – Department of Biological Psychology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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States of consciousness Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen NICI – Department of Biological Psychology Radboud University Nijmegen The Netherlands [email protected] States of consciousness. Lecture 4. Psychoactive drugs modulating consciousness. PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND CONSCIOUSNESS.

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States of consciousness Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen NICI – Department of Biological Psychology

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States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

States of consciousness

Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen

NICI – Department of Biological Psychology

Radboud University Nijmegen

The Netherlands

[email protected]


States of consciousness

States of consciousness

  • Lecture 4. Psychoactive drugs modulating consciousness


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND CONSCIOUSNESS

THREE MAIN GROUPS OF DRUGS MODULATE CONSCIOUSNESS

CENTRAL STIMULANTS

AMPHETAMINES – COCAINE – CAFFEINE - NICOTINE

HYPNOTICS – SEDATIVES – ANXIOLYTICS

BARBITURATES – BENZODIAZEPINES

PSYCHODELICS (MIND-ALTERING DRUGS)

ALCOHOL - MESCALINE – LSD – PSYLOCYBINE – OPIATES


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

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BALANCE BETWEEN EXCITATORY AND INHIBITORY SYSTEMS


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES

BARBITURATESSince 1903 Fischer and von Mering - efficient drugs - high toxicity - modulate chloride channels

BENZODIAZEPINESSince1960 Sternbach – safe and efficient – modulate GABA-system


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

HYPNOS


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

EFFECT

DEATH

COMA

ANESTHESIA

SLEEP

BARBITURATEN

BENZODIAZEPINES

DOSE


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Leo Sternbach

(1908)


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

The valium structure


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

EEFFECTS OF BENZODIAZEPINES

·SEDATIVE / HYPNOTIC

·ANXIOLYTIC

·MUSCLE RELAXANT

·ANTI-CONVULSIVE

·AMNESTIC

·EEG-CHANGES

·TOLERANCE

·DEPENDENCY


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

The AIM model may be used to think about the state of the brain in conditions other than sleep. For example, when all three state values fall and the AIM points move to the left lower front corner, the result is coma. Hallucination would be the effect when the internal stimulus strength increases during waking, and AIM moves to the right upper front corner. AIM moves to the left upper rear corner when external stimulus strength is increased, as in electroshock therapy. Whether or not these assumptions are correct can now be tested experimentally.


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Natives of Amazon prepare a brew of ‘ayahuasca’ (‘vine of the dead, or souls’). With this tea containing powerful hallucinogenic alkoloids, interior sounds are commonly heard, often triggering spontaneous vocalisations.


Alcohol

ALCOHOL


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Alcohol

  • invades all parts of the body (molecules are small and soluble in both fat and water)

  • inhibits the flow of sodium across the membranes

  • expands the surface of membranes

  • facilitates response by the GABAA receptor

  • blocks glutamate receptors

  • increases dopaminergic activity


Nicotine

NICOTINE


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

  • Nicotine binds to a nicotinic receptor, one of the two subtypes of acetylcholine receptors.

  • When nicotine binds to a nicotinic receptor, it opens Na+-channels, allowing sodium to flow into the cell.

  • This depolarises the cell membrane leading to a fast excitation.


Marijuana

MARIJUANA


Cocaine

COCAINE


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Central effects

Cocaine

Cocaine

Dopamine


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

When Coca-Cola was first produced, there was a clear reason why it relieved fatigue: It contained cocaine.


Heroin and morphine

HEROIN AND MORPHINE


Opiates narcotic analgesics

Opiates: narcotic analgesics

  • Pain relief

  • Sedation

  • Euphoria

  • Miosis

  • Impaired peristalsis

  • Respiratory depression

  • Inhibition cough reflex

a- Opiumanta- NaloxonMorphineHeroineMethadon ……


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Local Anesthetics


Gate control theory melzack and wall

Gate Control TheoryMelzack and Wall


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

  • Three classes of psycho-active drugs interfere with consciousness: central stimulants (enhancing), central depressants (diminishing) and psychodelics (‘changing’).

  • Central stimulants activate acetylcholine (nicotine), block GABA (caffeine) or inhibit dopamine re-uptake (amphetamine).

  • Central depressants open chloride channels (barbiturates), or facilitate GABA (benzodiazepines)

  • Psychodelics (‘hallucinogenics’) induce ‘altered states of consciousness (ASC)’, including hallucinations and distorted perception (amphetamine, cocaine, MDMA (ecstacy), LSD).

  • A deep brain depression causes anaesthesia, by opening Cl-channels (barbiturates), by agonistic action on GABA (benzodiazepines) or by antagonistic action on glutamate.

  • Powerful analgetics (pain killers) are morphine and heroine, interfering with opiate receptors and endorphines.

  • The fact that psycho-active drugs modulate neurotransmitter-systems in relation to consciousness pleads for a monistic view of consciousness.


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