Foods from genetically modified organisms
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FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS. Wilna Jansen v Rijssen Food Control Department of Health [email protected] FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS. Department of Health www.gov.za/department/health Cluster: Pharmaceutical: Policy and Planning Food Control.

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Foods from genetically modified organisms

FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

Wilna Jansen v Rijssen

Food Control

Department of Health

[email protected]


Foods from genetically modified organisms1

FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

Department of Health

www.gov.za/department/health

Cluster: Pharmaceutical: Policy and Planning

Food Control


Legislation

LEGISLATION

Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997 (Act 15 of 1997)

Genetically modified organisms


Gmo act

GMO ACT

  • Department of Agriculture

    • Executive Council for GMOs

      DoA, DACST, DEAT, DoH, Do, DTI

      • Advisory Committee - experts


Food from gmo

FOOD FROM GMO

  • GMO – maize kernels

  • Not a GMO but obtained from GMO and containing GM-material– maize meal

  • Not a GMO but obtained from GMO and not containing GMO material – glucose


Legislation1

LEGISLATION

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

Food industry

(processed foods)

Consumers


Legislation2

LEGISLATION

Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 (Act 54 of 1972)

Food safety


Fcd act

FCD ACT

Department of Health

Directorate: Food Control

Group: GMO food

4 professionals

5 Masters degrees (Biotechnology/Microbiology/

Plantbiochemistry/Toxicology and Nutrition)


Fcd act1

FCD ACT

Group: GMO food

  • Confidentiality clearance

  • Ethical Boards

    • Pharmacy Council

    • SA Council for Natural Scientific Professions


Fcd act2

FCD ACT

Roles, Functions and responsibilities of Group GMO food

GMO - Food Safety

GMO – Food Labelling

GMO –Food Communicate


Fcd act gmo act

FCD ACT/GMO ACT

FOOD SAFETY

Roles, Functions and responsibilities of Group GMO food

Verify compliance of applications with SA legislation and policies, international standards and guidelines

  • Risk assessments

  • Write reports

  • Advise the Director: Food Control


Fcd act gmo act1

FCD ACT / GMO ACT

Dept of Health

Director: Food Control

Dept of Agriculture

Exec Council for GMOs


Food safety

FOOD SAFETY

  • Authorities

    • Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO)

    • Organization for Economic and Social Development ( OECD ) 22+ countries

    • International Life Sciences (ILSI)

    • Others


Food safety1

FOOD SAFETY

  • Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO)

    • International Food Safety Standards and Guidelines based on science

    • Facilitate trade

      World Trade Organization


Codex alimentarius

CODEX ALIMENTARIUS

  • General Principles for the Risk Analysis of Foods derived from Modern Biotechnology

  • Guidelines for the conduct of safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants

  • Micro-0rganisms (in preparation)

  • ( fish)


Food safety2

FOOD SAFETY

  • FCD Act

  • Policy Guidelines for toxicological assessments

    • OECD Guidelines for tests

    • Chemicals (pesticides)

    • Microbial pest control agents

    • Botanical pest control agents (prep)

  • GMO-foods based on CODEX (new)

    website


Codex alimentarius1

CODEX ALIMENTARIUS

  • RISK ANALYSIS

  • Risk Assessment

    • Risk Management

      • Risk Communication


Codex alimentarius2

CODEX ALIMENTARIUS

RISK = HAZARD X EXPOSURE


Gmo safety and risk assessment

GMO – SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT

Case – by – case

  • Expressed substances (non-nucleic acid substances)

  • Compositional analysis of key components

  • Evaluation of metabolites

  • Food processing

  • Nutritional modification

  • others


Gmo risk management

GMO RISK MANAGEMENT

  • Legislation

  • Policies

  • Executive Council for GMO

  • Implementation


Gmo risk management1

GMO RISK MANAGEMENT

  • Policies - DOH

    • Codex Alimentarius standards and guidelines

    • Departmental Guidelines for chemicals/pesticides

    • Full assessments of GMO and products

    • Full assessment of GMOs for food and for feed

    • Antibiotic resistant genes – phased out


Codex q a

CODEX Q&A

  • What overarching scientific principles should be applied to the safety and nutritional assessment?


Codex q a1

CODEX Q&A

  • Substantial equivalence? …

    • Concept not a method

    • Well established component of Risk Assessment

    • No alternative strategies to provide a better assurance.


Codex q a2

CODEX Q&A

  • Long-term effects?

    • Pre-marketing safety assessment and methodology used are adequate to detect and evaluate any possible long-term effects.


Codex q a3

CODEX Q&A

  • Potential allergenicity?

    • Assessment of potential allergenicity to be conducted in all cases


Codex q a4

CODEX Q&A

  • Risks arising from the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes in plants and micro-org?

    • Subject to standard safety assessment as for any other introduced gene product


Antibiotic resistance

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

  • Gene transfer from plants and their food products to gut organisms or human cells only a rare possibility

  • Alternative transformation technologies encouraged


Fao director general dr jacques diouf manilla 7 december 1999

FAO DIRECTOR-GENERAL: Dr Jacques Diouf, Manilla, 7 December 1999

  • “We have no problem with GMOs as long as they are proven to be safe to human beings and have no negative impact on the environment”


European union 9 october 2001

EUROPEAN UNION9 OCTOBER 2001

  • 81 research projects financed by the EU over the last 15 years, at a cost of $64 million on GM crops and products made from. Research has not found “any new risks to human health or the environment beyond the usual uncertainties of conventional plant breeding”


European union 9 october 20011

EUROPEAN UNION9 OCTOBER 2001

  • Research has not found “any new risks to human health or the environment beyond the usual uncertainties of conventional plant breeding”

  • “Indeed, the use of more precise technology and greater regulatory scrutiny probably make them even safer than conventional plants and food”


Communication fcd act

COMMUNICATION:FCD ACT

  • LABELLING REGULATIONS

  • A label not a warning but only a method to convey information and to provide a choice.


Consultations total 35

CONSULTATIONS Total 35

  • Port Folio: 3

  • Interviews: radio, TV, journals, telephone, others

  • Conferences: 4

  • Groups: 9

  • Workshop#1 (71 representatives)

  • Workshops#2 #3 #4

    (food industry)

  • Workshop: comments


Consultations

CONSULTATIONS

  • FOOD LEGISLATION ADVISORY GROUP

  • 5 MEETING

  • FLAG sub committee


Codex alimentarius3

CODEX ALIMENTARIUS

  • Framework

  • Codex Definitions


Draft labelling regulations

DRAFT LABELLING REGULATIONS

  • Mandate from the Minister


Draft labelling regulations1

DRAFT LABELLING REGULATIONS

  • Mandatory – nutritional and natural toxin changes / allergens / genes from animals or humans

  • Voluntary – Improved / enhanced characteristics

  • Voluntary – Non-genetically modified


Food from gmo1

FOOD FROM GMO

  • GMO – maize kernels

  • Not a GMO but obtained from GMO and containing GM-genetic material – maize meal

  • Not a GMO but obtained from GMO and not containing GMO material – glucose


Codex alimentarius labelling

CODEX ALIMENTARIUSLABELLING

PRINCIPLES

“ No food should be described or presented in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive or is likely to create an erroneous impression regarding its character in any respect”.

Must substantiate a claim


Codex alimentarius labelling1

CODEX ALIMENTARIUSLABELLING

PROHIBITED CLAIMS

are e.g. those that

cannot be substantiated

could give rise to doubt about the safety, or

exploit fear in the consumer.


Sa labelling regulation

SA Labelling Regulation

  • MISLEADING

    • Analytical Methods are NOT RELIABLE

    • Few Methods validated

    • No statistically acceptable sampling methods

    • Paper trailing not reliable


Labelling

LABELLING

COST

  • Verification expensive

  • 30 000 products of soybeans and maize only

  • Increase in price with 8 to 18% (Australia)


Sa labelling regulation1

SA LABELLING Regulation

  • CHOICE

    • PRICE

    • Small percentage consumers read the detail on labels

    • Choice could decrease with increasing production /manufacturing of GM-food


Sa labelling regulation2

SA LABELLING Regulation

NON –GM Food

  • Identity preservation system

    (Segregation)

  • Export channel


Sa labelling regulation3

SA LABELLING Regulation

  • Recommendations

  • SABS Code of Practice: IPS

  • Guidelines


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