Management of bleeding in early pregnancy
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Management of Bleeding in Early Pregnancy. Best Practices in Maternal and Newborn Care. Session Objectives. To describe best practices for diagnosis of vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy To describe best practices for management of vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy

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Management of Bleeding in Early Pregnancy

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Management of bleeding in early pregnancy

Management of Bleeding in Early Pregnancy

Best Practices in Maternal and Newborn Care


Session objectives

Session Objectives

  • To describe best practices for diagnosis of vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy

  • To describe best practices for management of vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy

  • To list post-abortion family planning options

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Case study

Case Study

  • Let everyone read Case Study 1 and discuss in group.

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Definition and incidence

Definition and Incidence

  • Bleeding in Early Pregnancy is:

    • Vaginal bleeding that occurs during the first 22 weeks of pregnancy

    • May occur in up to 25% of all pregnancies

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


What may cause bleeding

What may cause bleeding . . .

. . . in early pregnancy?

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Bleeding in early pregnancy diagnosis of abortion

Bleeding in Early Pregnancy: Diagnosis of Abortion

  • Threatened abortion

  • Inevitable abortion

  • Incomplete abortion

  • Complete abortion

  • Septic abortion

  • Missed abortion

  • Ectopic pregnancy

  • Molar pregnancy

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Types of abortions 1

Threatened Abortion

Uterine bleeding

Cervix closed

Risk of Complete Abortion: 50%

Inevitable Abortion

Bleeding and/or rupture of gestational sac <20 weeks

Cervix dilated

Menstrual-type cramping

No products of conception expelled yet

Types of abortions (1)

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Types of abortions 2

Incomplete Abortion

Incomplete evacuation of products of conception

Complete Abortion

Complete evacuation of products of conception

Difficult to differentiate from Incomplete Abortion

May require dilatation and curettage for diagnosis

Types of abortions (2)

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Types of abortions 3

Missed Abortion (fetal demise)

Retained non-viable products of conception, up to 4 weeks

May cause coagulopathy

Septic abortion

Abortion complicated by infection

Types of abortions (3)

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Types of abortions 4

Spontaneous Abortion

Gestational age <20 weeks

Weight <500 grams

Induced Abortion

Elective Abortion or

Therapeutic Abortion

Types of abortions (4)

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy

  • The result of an abnormality in human reproductive physiology that allows the conceptus to implant and mature outside the endometrial cavity, which ultimately ends in the death of the fetus.

Ectopic pregnancy sites

Source: Vicken Sepillan, MD. Dept. of OB/GYN, Univ. of Texas

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Bleeding in early pregnancy general management

Bleeding in Early Pregnancy: General Management

  • Rapid evaluation of woman’s general condition including vital signs (pulse, blood pressure, respiration, temperature)

  • If shock suspected, immediately begin treatment.

  • If woman is in shock, consider ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  • Start an IV infusion and infuse IV fluids.

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Management of threatened abortion

Management of Threatened Abortion

  • Medical treatment usually not necessary.

  • Advise woman to avoid strenuous activity and sexual intercourse; bed rest not necessary.

  • If bleeding stops, followup in antenatal clinic. Reassess if bleeding recurs.

  • If bleeding persists, assess for fetal viability (pregnancy test/ultrasound) or ectopic pregnancy (ultrasound). Persistent bleeding, esp. in the presence of uterus larger than expected may indicate twins or molar pregnancy.

Do not give medications such as hormones (e.g. estrogens or progestins) or tocolytic agents (e.g. salbutamol or indomethacin) as they will not prevent miscarriage.

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Management of inevitable abortion

Management ofInevitable Abortion

  • If pregnancy is less than 16 weeks, plan for evacuation of uterine contents. If evacuation not immediately possible:

    • Give ergometrine 0.2 mg IM (repeated after 15 min. if necessary) OR misoprostol 400 mcg by mouth (repeated once after 4 hours if necessary);

    • Arrange for evacuation as soon as possible.

  • Ensure follow-up after treatment.

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Inevitable abortion contd

Inevitable abortion contd.

  • If pregnancy is greater than 16 weeks:

    • Await spontaneous expulsion of products of conception and then evacuate uterus to remove any remaining products of conception

    • If necessary, infuse oxytocin 40 units in 1 L IV fluids at 40 drops/min to help expulsion of products of conception

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Management of incomplete abortion less than 16 weeks

Management ofIncomplete Abortion:Less than 16 Weeks

  • If bleeding light to moderate, use fingers or ring (or sponge) forceps to remove products of conception protruding through cervix.

  • If bleeding heavy, evacuate uterus:

    • Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is preferred method. Sharp curettage should only be done if MVA not available

    • If evacuation not immediately possible, give ergometrine 0.2 mg IM (repeated after 15 min. if necessary) OR misoprostol 400 mcg orally (repeated once after 4 hours if necessary).

    • Ensure followup of the woman after treatment.

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Manual vacuum aspiration mva of uterus

Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) of uterus

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Management of incomplete abortion greater than 16 weeks

Management of Incomplete Abortion: Greater than 16 Weeks

  • Infuse oxytocin 40 units in 1 L IV fluids at 40 drops/min. until expulsion of POC occurs

  • Evacuate any remaining products of conception from uterus by dilatation and curettage

  • If necessary, give misoprostol 200 mcg vaginally every 4 hours until expulsion, but do not administer more than 800 mcg.

  • Ensure followup of the woman after treatment.

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Bleeding in early pregnancy management of complete abortion

Bleeding in Early Pregnancy: Management of Complete Abortion

  • Evacuation of the uterus usually not necessary

  • Observe for heavy bleeding

  • Ensure followup of woman after treatment

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Bleeding in early pregnancy followup after abortion

Bleeding in Early Pregnancy: Followup after Abortion

  • Tell woman that spontaneous abortion is common.

  • Reassure woman that chances for subsequent successful pregnancy are good unless there has been sepsis or unless cause of abortion is identified that may have an adverse effect on future pregnancies (rare).

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Follow up after spontaneous abortion

Follow-up after spontaneous abortion

  • Encourage her to delay next pregnancy until completely recovered.

  • Provide counseling for women who have had unsafe abortion.If pregnancy not desired, certain FP methods can be started immediately (within 7 days) if:

    • There are no severe complications requiring further treatment

    • Woman receives adequate counseling and help in selecting most appropriate FP method.

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Family planning methods after post abortion care

Family Planning Methods after Post-abortion Care

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Ectopic pregnancy1

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

  • Pregnancy which is outside the uterine cavity

    • Can be in the tube, ovary, abdomen or other locations

    • If it ruptures, can lead to hemorrhage and death

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Ectopic pregnancy clinical diagnosis

Ectopic Pregnancy:Clinical Diagnosis

  • Symptoms:

    • Pain: 90-100% of patients

    • Amenorrhea/abnormal menses: 75-95%

    • Irregular bleeding: 50-80%

    • Pregnancy symptoms: 10-25%

Weckstein 1987.

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Ectopic pregnancy clinical diagnosis cont d

Ectopic pregnancy: Clinical Diagnosis (cont’d)

  • Signs:

    • Afebrile

    • Abdominal tenderness: 80-95%

    • Rebound tenderness: 45%

    • Palpable mass: 50% (often opposite side)

    • Normal sized uterus: 71%

  • Use combination testing to increase sensitivity and specificity

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Signs and symptoms of unruptured ectopic pregnancy

Signs and Symptoms of Unruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

  • Symptoms of early pregnancy

    • Irregular spotting or bleeding

    • Nausea

    • Swelling of breasts

    • Bluish discoloration of vagina and cervix

    • Softening of cervix

    • Slight uterine enlargement

    • Increased urinary frequency

  • Abdominal and pelvic pain

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Signs and symptoms of ruptured ectopic pregnancy

Ruptured ectopic pregnancy seen through a laparoscope Source: Vicken Sepillan, MD

Dept. of OB/GYN, Univ. of Texas

Signs and Symptoms of Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

  • Collapse and weakness

  • Fast, weak pulse (≥110/minute)

  • Hypotension

  • Hypovolemia

  • Acute abdominal and pelvic pain

  • Abdominal distension

  • Rebound tenderness

  • Pallor

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Differential diagnosis for ectopic pregnancy

Differential Diagnosis for Ectopic Pregnancy

  • Threatened abortion

  • Acute or chronic PID

  • Ovarian cysts

    (torsion or rupture)

  • Acute appendicitis

  • Remember: A ruptured ectopic pregnancy could be life-threatening!

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Treatment of ectopic pregnancy

Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy

  • Surgical-Salpingectomy (removal of the pregnancy or tube)

  • Also treated medically, although not available in developing countries

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Molar pregnancy

Molar pregnancy

  • Symptoms and signs:

    • Heavy bleeding

    • Dilated cervix

    • Uterus larger than dates

    • Uterus softer than normal

    • Partial expulsion of products of conception which resemble grapes

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Molar pregnancy contd

Molar pregnancy contd.

Gross and histology

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Molar pregnancy contd1

Molar Pregnancy contd.

  • If diagnosis of molar pregnancy is certain, evacuate the uterus:

    • Use vacuum aspiration

      • Risk of perforation using a metal curette is high

      • Have three syringes cocked and ready for use as uterine contents are copious and must be evacuated rapidly

    • Infuse oxytocin 20 units in 1 L IV (NS or RL) at 60 drops/minute to prevent hemorrhage once evacuation is under way

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Molar pregnancy contd2

Molar pregnancy contd.

  • Subsequent management

    • Use contraception for at least one year

    • Follow up every 8 weeks for at least one year to monitor for trophoblastic disease or choriocarcinoma

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


Summary

Summary

  • Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy could be caused by:

    • Threatened abortion

    • Incomplete abortion

    • Complete abortion

    • Ectopic pregnancy

    • Molar pregnancy

  • Diagnosis can often be made clinically, saving time and expense

  • Treatment should be directed at the aetiology

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


References

References

  • Ganges F. Bleeding in Early Pregnancy, a presentation in Accra, Ghana, Basic Maternal and Newborn Care Technical Update. April, 2006.

  • Jongen V. 1996. Ectopic pregnancy and culdo-abdominocentesis. Int J Gynecol Obstet 55: 75-76.

  • Musnick RA. 1982. Clinical test for placenta in 300 consecutive menstrual aspirations. Obstet Gynecol 60:738-741.

  • Weckstein LN. 1987. Clinical diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Clin Obstet and Gynecol 30(1):236-244.

  • WHO. Managing Complications in Pregnancy and Childbirth. WHO. Geneva. 2000

Vaginal Bleeding in Early Pregnancy


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