The end of the vietnam war
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The End of the Vietnam War. TET Offensive. Tet – weeklong festivities for Vietnamese New Year Supposed week long truce Funerals being held for war victims Coffins contained weapons Vietcong launched attack on 100 cities in S. Vietnam, 12 US airbases, fierce fighting in Saigon.

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The End of the Vietnam War

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The end of the vietnam war

The End of the Vietnam War

Tet offensive

TET Offensive

  • Tet – weeklong festivities for Vietnamese New Year

  • Supposed week long truce

    • Funerals being held for war victims

  • Coffins contained weapons

  • Vietcong launched attack on 100 cities in S. Vietnam, 12 US airbases, fierce fighting in Saigon

South Vietnamese General Nguyen Ngoc Loan, chief of the national police, fires his pistol into the head of suspected Viet Cong officer Nguyen Van Lem on a Saigon street, on Feb. 1, 1968.

Tet offensive results

Tet Offensive Results

  • 1 month for US forces to regain control

  • Militarily - “Defeat for Vietcong”

    • Vietcong losses – 32,000

    • US lost – 3,000

  • Psychological and Political

    • Shook American public

      • No longer believed body counts

      • No longer believed close to defeat

    • Johnson’s reputation suffers

    • American views of war Change

The end of the vietnam war

“More Certain than ever that the bloody experience of Vietnam to end in a stalemate.” ~Walter Cronkite

The divide of the democrats

The Divide of the Democrats

  • Majority of Americans disapprove of war policies

  • Anti-war coalition in Democratic party created before Tet to unseat Johnson

  • Group nominates Eugene McCarthy

  • Johnson barely won primary in NH

  • RFK citing Johnson’s weakness at polls declares

  • Johnson announces his withdraw and end of escalation in Vietnam

A time of turmoil 1968

A Time of Turmoil - 1968

  • MLK and RFK assassinated

  • Protests, Riots, and turmoil throughout the nation

  • The Democratic National Convention – Chicago

    • Hubert Humphrey vs. Eugene McCarthy

    • VP Humphrey slated to win

    • Protesters came, Mayor ordered 12000 troops and 5000 National Guardsmen

    • Protestors beat with clubs and sprayed with mase

    • Spilled into the streets

    • All Nationally televised – made Democrats who were divided look Worse

Election of 1968

Election of 1968

  • Nixon, never strayed far from politics announces Republican candidacy

    • Promised to restore order

  • Independent George Wallace (former Democrat)

  • Nixon defeats Humphrey by over 100 electoral votes, only 43% popular vote

Nixon s vietnam policies

Nixon’s Vietnam Policies

  • Negotiations poor

  • Vietnamization

    • gradual withdraw of US troops

    • Allow S. Vietnamese too take more responsibility

    • US Troops dropped from 500,000 to 25,000 over next 3 yrs

  • “Peace with Honor”

    • Maintain US dignity despite withdraw

    • Maintain US power at Negotiation Table

    • Secretly bombed supply lines, Laos and Cambodia

My lai massacre

My Lai Massacre

  • Read the Handout

  • Effects: America Shocked, further divides nations against Vietnam

Invasion of cambodia

Invasion of Cambodia

  • America becoming less explosive, even at college campuses

  • Nixon declares invasion

  • Purpose:

    • Clear out North Vietnamese and supply lines

  • Effects:

    • Colleges erupt in protest

    • 1.5 million students, 1200 campuses

Kent state 1970

Kent State - 1970

  • You Tube Video

  • You Tube Video 2

Pentagon papers

Pentagon Papers

  • 7,000 page document revealing gov. plans for entering war as Johnson promised not escalate

  • Revealed plans to not end war as long as N. Vietnamese persisted

  • Leaked by former Defense Dept. worker

  • Effects:

    • Confirmed belief that gov. had not been honest

    • Greater distrust in government

Peace at hand

“Peace At Hand”

  • March ‘72 – North Vietnam launched largest attack since Tet, Nixon counters with massive bombing – still resulted in stalemate

  • Election and Growing Division in US led Nixon to arrange final troop withdraw

  • Henry Kissinger Nixon’s top negotiator – gave in insistence that North Vietnamese troops leave South Vietnam before US troops

  • Announced “Peace at Hand”

  • Nixon won re-election

The end of the vietnam war

  • Take Handouts up Front

  • Unit 12 – Vietnam Test TOMORROW

    • Journals Due

America pulls out

America Pulls Out

  • Thieu regime in S. Vietnam rejected Kissinger’s negotiations  talks broke off  Nixon bombed Hanoi and Haiphong

  • Congress, Beijing and Moscow called to end war

  • US signed agreement to end war & restore peace

    • North Vietnamese troops remain in S. Vietnam

    • No Violation of Peace or Nixon would Return

  • Cease fire agreement collapsed

  • North full invasion of South

  • Thieu begged US help, sent aid but no troops

Impacts of war

Impacts of War

  • Landscape of Vietnam DESTROYED

  • The Price of War:

    • United States: 58,000 died in Vietnam313,616 wounded10,000 lost at least one limb due to booby traps, mines, ambushes and other guerilla tactics1340 remain MIA

    • South Vietnam: 185,528 killed499,026 wounded

    • North Vietnam/Viet Cong: 924,048 dead415,000 civilians killed935,000 civilians wounded

Effects of war on southeast asia

Effects of War on Southeast Asia

  • North Vietnam gains control of South

    • Communist imprisoned 400,000 South Vietnamese

    • Many fled on anything that floated, caused Humanitarian crisis:

      • 50,000 died

  • Cambodia broke into Civil War

    • Khmer Rouge (communist party) wanted to transform into a peasant utopian society

    • Killed estimated 2 million Cambodians

Effects on american soldiers

Effects on American Soldiers

  • Return home often faced with hostility or indifference

  • 15% developed PTS

  • Many began abusing drugs and/or alcohol

  • Several thousand committed suicide

  • Many lost limbs, hard readjustment to society

Effects of the war on the us

Effects of the war on the US

  • Controversy between Hawks vs. Doves

  • Abolishment of the Draft

  • Passing of War Powers Act

    • President must inform Congress 48 hours if sending troops to non war declared hostile zone

    • Troops remain no longer than 90 days if non declared war

  • Alter American views on foreign policy – possible risks to own interests

  • Distrust of politicians and government, lost optimism of Eisenhower/Kennedy years

    • Johnson – misleading info

    • Nixon – concealed activities, watergate

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