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The American Colonies. Jamestown, VA May 13, 1607: Arrival of 104 Male Settlers. WHY?. For what reasons did individuals come to America?. Colonizing America. Wealth. Colonizing America. Religious dissent. Types of Colonies. Royal Colonies King Ruled by royal governor.

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The American Colonies

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The american colonies

The American Colonies


The american colonies

Jamestown, VA

May 13, 1607: Arrival of 104 Male Settlers


The american colonies

WHY?

For what reasons did individuals come to America?


Colonizing america

Colonizing America

  • Wealth


Colonizing america1

Colonizing America

  • Religious dissent


Types of colonies

Types of Colonies

  • Royal Colonies

    • King

    • Ruled by royal governor


Types of colonies1

Types of Colonies

  • Proprietary

    • Individuals or groups

    • King gifted land


Types of colonies2

Types of Colonies

  • Charter

    • Established by charters

    • King

    • Colonies governed themselves


Regional divisions

Regional Divisions


New england colonies

New England Colonies


Massachusetts 1620

Massachusetts (1620)

  • Pilgrims (Plymouth)

    • Separatists

      • wanted to separate from the Anglican Church

    • 1st Thanksgiving

    • Mayflower Compact

      • 41 men drew up the agreement to outline fair and equal laws for the colony; signed on the Mayflower

      • 1620


The american colonies

Massachusetts (1630)

  • Puritans

    • Purify and reform Anglican Church

    • Massachusetts Bay Colony

    • Strict religious beliefs; radical

  • John Winthrop

    “for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us”

    City Upon A Hill, 1630


  • The american colonies

    • New Hampshire (1630)

      • John Mason

      • English and Scots-Irish settlers

      • Economic freedom

      • Settled for religious freedom

      • Escape for those constricted by harsh religious and economic rules of the Puritans

      • Royal Colony


    The american colonies

    • Rhode Island (1636)

      • Roger Williams

      • Exiled by Puritans in Mass. settled in Providence

      • Religious freedom

      • Trade

    • Connecticut (1636)

      • Thomas Hooker

      • Dutch (economic freedom) and English (religious freedom)

      • Asked to leave by Mass.

      • Agriculture and trade


    Middle colonies

    Middle Colonies


    The american colonies

    • New York (1626)

      • Peter Minuit

      • Dutch (Netherlands), taken over by English

      • Trade and profits

      • Anglican

      • Proprietary to royal colony

    • New Jersey (1660)

      • Lord Berkley

      • Established by Sweden became English

      • Agriculture, trade and profits

      • Proprietary to royal colony

    • Delaware (1638)

      • Peter Minuit

      • Dutch, Swedish and English

      • Farming, trade and profits

      • Proprietary


    Pennsylvania 1682

    Pennsylvania (1682)

    • William Penn

    • Proprietary

    • Home to many European Immigrants: Swedish, Dutch, English, Scots-Irish and German

    • Farming

  • Quakers

    • Equality and all possessed “Inner Light”

    • Pennsylvania


  • Southern colonies

    Southern Colonies


    Virginia 1607

    Virginia (1607)

    • Jamestown

    • 1st permanent settlement mostly males (indentured servants and treasure hunters)

    • 60/900 colonists survived

    • Ruled by John Smith

    • Founded by the Virginia Company

      • Joint-stock company: organized to raise money by selling stocks/shares to investors

      • Becomes royal

        House of Burgesses (1619)-22 representatives called burgesses met to outline laws for the colony


    The american colonies

    Maryland (1634)

    George Calvert

    Religious freedom for Catholics

    Established for trade, finding precious metals and to locate a water passage across the continent

    Farming

    Proprietary


    Maryland act of toleration

    Maryland Act of Toleration

    • 1649

    • Granted freedom of worship for all Catholics

    • Symbolic beginning of freedom of religion


    The american colonies

    • North Carolina (1653)

      • Group of proprietors: business venture

      • Settlers from Virginia

      • Farming, trade and profit

      • Anglican

    • South Carolina (1670)

      • Group of proprietors

      • Settlers from France, English, Africans and Irish

      • Food crops

      • Anglican

      • Proprietary to royal

    • Georgia (1733)

      • General James Oglethorpe

      • Spanish settlements taken by English

      • Debtors and convicts protect colonies from Spanish and French invasions

      • Slow economic growth farmed, harvested lumber and traded furs


    The american colonies

    The Charter of Carolina 1663


    The american colonies

    Ethnic and Religious Diversity


    Discrimination in massachusetts

    Discrimination in Massachusetts

    • Salem Witch Trials


    Discrimination in massachusetts1

    Discrimination in Massachusetts

    • Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams

    • Banished from Massachusetts


    Discrimination

    Discrimination

    • African Americans

      • Free

      • Slaves

    • Native Americans

      • Pushed off land

        by westward settlers


    Religious tolerance

    Religious Tolerance

    • Roger Williams Providence, RI

    • Pennsylvania

      • English Quakers

      • German Lutherans

      • Scotch-Irish Presbyterians

      • Swiss Mennonites

    • New York linguistic and cultural diversity

      • First synagogue


    Colonial economy

    Colonial Economy


    The american colonies

    Economic Diversity:

    -South= Agriculture

    -North = Commerce

    -Towns and cities

    develop along water


    Economy

    Economy

    • Mercantilism

      • Economic policy

      • Europe

      • Way to get rich

      • Export more than you import

        Effect= Britain creates rules for colonial trade


    Commerce and immigrants new england

    Commerce and Immigrants (New England)

    • Port cities

      • Boston

      • Immigrant population increases due to religious freedom and economic opportunities (German, Scotch-Irish, Dutch)

      • More towns in North than Southern colonies

      • Use town meetings to govern


    New england colonies1

    New England Colonies

    • Shipbuilding

    • Fishing

    • Smaller farms self-sufficient


    Middle colonies economy

    Middle Colonies’ Economy

    • Diverse in people and business

    • Less slaves

      • Shops, homes and farms


    Middle colonies economy1

    Middle Colonies’ Economy

    • Farming

      • Wheat, barley, rye

    • Commerce

      • Access to water

      • Shipping overseas

      • New York and

        Philadelphia


    Southern economy

    Southern Economy

    • John Rolfe and tobacco

      • Virginia, Maryland, NC

    • Plantations develop

      • Need for labor

      • Indentured servants

        • Agree to work for landowner

        • 4-7 years

      • slavery


    Southern plantation systems

    Southern Plantation Systems

    • Exported cash crops to make money

    • Creates:

      (1) Large farms around rivers

      (2) Need for lots of labor

      (3) Wealthy class of plantation owners


    Slave trade

    Slave Trade

    • First slaves were captured Native Americans

    • African slave trade flourished by 1700s

    • Slaves endured a harsh voyage: Middle Passage

    • Widespread use in Southern colonies


    Colonial society

    Colonial Society

    Ethnic Diversity

    -African Americans

    -Native Americans

    Class Distinctions

    • Women

    • Wealth = power


    Bacon s rebellion

    Bacon’s Rebellion

    • Virginia, 1676

    • Cause:

      Small farmers treated unfairly; wealthy landowners paid

      fewer taxes and received many benefits

    • Nathaniel Bacon

    • Failed!

    • Result:

      Need for representation

      in government for the

      “common man”


    Colonial government

    Colonial Government

    • Britain allows the colonies to govern themselves

      • Salutary neglect

    • Colonial legislatures hold the power


    1 2 self government and the colonies

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • Ancient Greece (800-510 BC)

      • Greeks practiced democracy

      • People vote directly

    • Romans created a republic (500 BC)

      • Representative democracy


    1 2 self government and the colonies1

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • Middle Ages (400-1500 AD)

      • Republics fade

      • Autocracies develop

        • Government ruled by a single sovereign

      • Renaissance (1450 AD)

        • “Rebirth”

        • Reconnection to ancient Greece and Rome

        • Classical republicanism


    1 2 self government and the colonies2

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • Post Middle Ages

      • Limited government

        • Government that must obey a set of laws

        • Usually a written document

    • Magna Carta or “Great Charter” (1215 AD)

      • Prevented king from imposing taxes

      • Needed approval of a council  British Parliament

    • English Bill of Rights (1689 AD)

      • Power to Parliament

      • King could not interfere with Parliamentary elections or impose taxes

    • Common Law

      • Originated in Middle Ages

      • Law based on tradition or past court decisions instead of written statutes


    The english government

    The English Government

    • Magna Carta (The Great Charter)

      • Guaranteed rights and liberties to the English people that could not be cancelled by later laws

        Common Law-evolved from the Magna Carta; unwritten laws based on customs, usage and precedents


    1 2 self government and the colonies3

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • Enlightenment (1600s)

      • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

        • All people are born with certain rights

        • Protect one’s own life  lead to chaos

        • Strong government is needed

        • Abuses by government = price of maintaining peace and order


    The second treatise of civil government

    The Second Treatise of Civil Government

    • 1. What is Locke’s argument?

    • 2. What evidence does he give to support it?

    • 3. Do you agree or disagree with his point about preserving mankind? Why?


    1 2 self government and the colonies4

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • John Locke (1632-1704)

      • Two Treatises on Government (1690)

        • Natural rights: life, liberty, property

        • Can’t morally be taken away by government

        • Social contract theory

          • Implied contract between government and citizens

          • People submit themselves to follow the law for the common good and to cultivate civic virtue

          • Government fails= replace government


    1 2 self government and the colonies5

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • Montesquieu (1689-1755)

      • Separation of powers

      • Three branches of government

      • Checks and balances

    • Voltaire (1694- 1778)

      • Free speech, freedom of expression and freedom of religion

    • Jean Jacque Rousseau (1712- 1778)

      • equality


    1 2 self government and the colonies6

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • American Colonies

      • House of Burgesses (1619)

        • First elected body in New World

        • Citizens should have a voice

        • Created laws for the colony of Jamestown

      • Mayflower Compact (1620)

        • Document drafted by settlers

        • Created an elected legislature

        • Government received power from the people of the colony

        • Demonstrates desire to be ruled by local government instead of England


    1 2 self government and the colonies7

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • Town meetings

      • Representative government

      • Local citizens met to discuss and vote on issues

      • Belief in democratic ideals

    • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)

      • Written body of laws for the colony

      • Government’s power came only from the “free consent of the people”

      • Set limits on what government could do


    1 2 self government and the colonies8

    1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies

    • First Continental Congress (1774)

      • Gathering of colonial leaders

      • Respond to laws passed by Parliament

      • “not represented in Parliament” and violations of “natural rights”

    • Second Continental Congress (1775)

      • Meeting of colonial leaders

      • Response to the Kings failure to act throw off British rule


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