Early civilizations 2000 bc 500 bc
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Early Civilizations (2000 BC – 500 BC). Phoenicians, Hebrews, Persians, and Kush. SOL Standard Essential Questions. What religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations? What were the essential beliefs of Judaism? How did Judaism influence Western Civilization?

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Early Civilizations (2000 BC – 500 BC)

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Early Civilizations (2000 BC – 500 BC)

Phoenicians, Hebrews, Persians, and Kush


SOL Standard Essential Questions

  • What religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations?

  • What were the essential beliefs of Judaism?

  • How did Judaism influence Western Civilization?

  • What forms of language and writing existed in early civilizations?

  • How did Persia govern its empire?


Phoenicians

  • Settled in the Fertile Crescentalong the Mediterranean coast (present-day Lebanon).

Phoenicia


Phoenician Colonies

  • Colony: a land controlled by a distant nation

  • Phoenicians set up colonies around the Mediterranean (in yellow)


Phoenician Accomplishments

  • Alphabet

  • Great shipbuilders and seafarers

  • Spread tradeand civilization


Phoenician Alphabet

  • 22 letter alphabet

  • Basis of all modern European and West Asian alphabets

  • Facilitated trade (made it easier).


Iron-making technology

  • Hittites

  • Ironwas cheaperand stronger than other metals.

  • Once mastered, knowledge of its production caused great changes in societies.


Hebrews

  • Abraham settled in the Fertile Crescent between the Mediterranean Sea and the JordonRiver (present-day Israel)

  • His descendents became known as Hebrews.


Monotheism

  • Belief in one god

  • Hebrews were the first monotheists


Abraham

  • Abraham’smonotheism became the foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.


Moses

  • Led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt to the “promised land”

  • Delivered the Ten Commandments


Beliefs of Judaism

The Religion of the Hebrews

  • One God

  • Torah

  • Ten Commandments


The Ten Commandments

  • State both religiousand moral conduct

  • Require that believers both worship God and live justlywith one another


The Torah

  • Holy book of Judaism: contains the records and beliefsof the Hebrews

  • The first five books of the Old Testament of the Bible


Jerusalem

  • King Davidunited the tribesofIsraelandestablished Jerusalem as the capitalof Israel.


Exile

  • Jews were driven from their homeland by the Romans in AD 132. The state of Israelceased to exist for 1800years.


Diaspora

  • Scattering of the Jews

  • Jews migrated all around the Mediterranean Sea


Western Wall

  • In 70 AD the Romans destroyed the ancient Temple of Jerusalem.

  • The West Wall of the Temple Mount is all that remains today.

  • Jews consider this wall their most sacred shrine(holy site).

  • They come from all over the world to prayat this shrine.


  • The site of the original temple is now occupied by a MuslimMosque (Dome of the Rock).

  • Ownership of these and other holy siteshas been a source of bickering between Muslims and Jews for centuries.


Persian Empire

  • The largest empire in the world

  • It stretched from The Nile to the IndusRiver

  • Persia: Present-day Iran


How did Darius and other Persian rulers unite the Persian Empire?


Persian Rulers

  • Treated conquered people with toleranceDeveloped an imperial bureaucracy

  • Built an extensive road system

  • Zoroastrianism(religion)


Tolerance

  • Persian rulers allowed the people they conquered to practice their own religions and follow their own customs.


Bureaucracy

  • A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials

  • Darius divided his empire into provinces each run by a governor (satrap)


Persian Road System

  • Great RoyalRoad

  • Unitedthe empire (provided a means of communication, trade, and governmental control).


Zoroastrianism

  • Early monotheisticreligion

  • Battle between goodand evil; darknessand light

Zoroaster

Zoroaster


Ahura Mazda

  • God of truth and light


Kush

  • Located on the upper(southern) Nile

  • Present-day Sudan

  • Also called Nubia


Kush and Egypt

  • Ideas and goods flowed along the Nilebetween Kush and Egypt


Egypt Conquers Kush

  • Egypt dominated Kush for 1000 years

Gifts for the King from a country called Nubia


Kush Conquers Egypt

  • Kush conqueredEgypt and established its own dynastyon the Egyptian throne


Contributions of Kush

  • Meroiticscript(writing)


  • Steep sided pyramids and palaces


  • Gold, copper, and ironworking.


Golden Age of Meroe

  • After the Assyrians conquered Egypt, Kush continued to prosper in the booming tradebetween Africa, Arabia and India


Nubian Queen

Nubian Queen

Ahmes Nefertari

Ahmes Nefertari

of Egypt around 1550 B.C

of Egypt around 1550 B.C


Reflection

  • The origin of Judaism can be traced toA.     Abraham.B.     Mohammed.C.     Asoka.D.     Gautama.

  • Which of the following is a characteristic of Persian rulers?A. Abuse of conquered peopleB. Primitive transportationC. Development of imperial bureaucracyD. Hinduism as a religion


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