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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Optimality Theory' - yvette-hyde

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Optimality Theory

- OT in real life;
- OT in Yawelmani;
- The strength of OT.

Optimality Theory in real life

- How do I group these people?

What is OT ?

- an approach in phonological description pioneered by Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky (1993).

The Fundamentals of OT

The structure:

- CON (Constraint component)
- GEN (Generator component)
- EVAL(Evaluator component)
- CON : a universal set of constraints.
- Faithfulness constraints—prohibits difference between input and output.
- Dep constraint: output depends on input
- /input/ …{cand1, cand2,…}/buk-z/ {[buks, bugz, bukz… ]}

The Fundamentals of OT

- GEN : a mapping of inputs to every possible output, producing candidates
- /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…}/buk-z/ {[buks, bugz, bukz… ]}

- EVAL: a method for choosing the best candidate.
- /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…}
Eval[output]

- /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…}

OT in Yawelmani:

- Spoken in California
- Syllables cannot be bigger than CVC pattern.
EX: Input /ʔilk-hin/ output=[ ? ]

- 1. ʔil.k.hin
- 2. ʔi.lik.hin
- 3. ʔi.li.ki.hin
- 4. ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni

OT in Yawelmani:

- Input /ʔilk-hin/GEN{[ cand1,… cand4,… ]}EVALoutput=[ ]
Candidate set:

- Can1= ʔil.k.hin
- Can2= ʔi.lik.hin
- Can3= ʔi.li.ki.hin
- Can4= ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni

Apply * C unsyll (unsyllabified consonant is ungrammatical)

Apply Dep

Input /ʔilk-hin/

- Can1= ʔil.k.hin
- Can2= ʔi.lik.hin
- Can3= ʔi.li.ki.hin
- Can4= ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni
- Favors 2,3,4 over 1 (because [k] is unsyllabified)

- Favors 1, over 2 over 3 over 4

OT in Yawelmani:

- Constraint Hierarchy:
C unsyll>>Dep

- Output= Cand2 [ʔi.lik.hin]

The strength of OT

Yawelmani:

- Delete a vowel at the end of a word.
- /taxa-ka/ /ta.xak/, /taxa-mi//ta.xam/
- V deletion: Vø / VC____#

The strength of OT

- / xat.ka/ ?
- /xat.ka/? VS /xat.k/?
- / xat.ka / exists.
- *C unsyll—prohibits unsyllabified consonants. /xat.k/ is ungrammatical.
- *V#--end vowel deletion.

The strength of OT

- C unsyll >> V# :C unsyll has a higher priority than V# (C unsyll dominates V#), so / xat.ka/ exist and */ xat.k/ does not.

The strength of OT

- models grammars as systems that provide mappings from inputs to outputs; typically, the inputs are conceived of as underlying representations, and the outputs as their surface realizations.
- proposes that the observed forms of language arise from the interaction between conflicting constraints.
- Constraint prioritization ranking is fundamental to OT

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