Topic 3 2 hardware requirements
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Topic 3.2 – Hardware Requirements. 3.2.1 Devices. 3.2.1.1 Identify the devices needed in computer network communication : NETWORK INTERFACE CARD WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD MODEM (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL) HUB/SWITCH ROUTER WIRELESS ACCESS POINT. 3.2.1 Devices.

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Topic 3.2 – Hardware Requirements

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Topic 3 2 hardware requirements

Topic 3.2 – Hardware Requirements


3 2 1 devices

3.2.1 Devices

3.2.1.1 Identify the devices needed in computer network communication :

  • NETWORK INTERFACE CARD

  • WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD

  • MODEM (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL)

  • HUB/SWITCH

  • ROUTER

  • WIRELESS ACCESS POINT


3 2 1 devices1

3.2.1 Devices

3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following:

NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC)

  • A NETWORK CARD, SOMETIMES PRONOUNCED AS NICK, IS AN ADAPTER CARD OR PC CARD THAT ENABLES THE COMPUTER TO ACCESS THE NETWORK.

  • KAD RANGKAIAN YANG KADANGKALA DISEBUT SEBAGAI NICK ADALAH KAD ADAPTER ATAU PC KAD YANG MEMBOLEHKAN KOMPUTER MENCAPAI INTERNET DALAM RANGKAIAN


3 2 1 devices2

3.2.1 Devices

3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following:

WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD

WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD IS A NETWORK

CARD THAT PROVIDES WIRELESS DATA TRANSMISSION.

ADALAH KAD RANGKAIAN YANG MEMBOLEHKAN

CAPAIAN INTERNET TANPA WAYAR


3 2 1 devices3

3.2.1 Devices

3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following:

MODEM (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL)

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MODEM, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL

AN INTERNAL MODEMONLY WORKS IN STAND-ALONE COMPUTERS. IT IS BUILT INTO THE PC.

AN EXTERNAL MODEM IS SEPARATED FROM THE COMPUTER AND IS ALSO MOBILE.

ADA 2 JENIS MODEM IAITU DALAMAN DAN LUARAN

MODEM DALAMAN HANYA ADA PADA PC DESKTOP YANG MANA TELAH SEDIA DIBUAT DALAM PC

MODEM LUARAN MERUPAKAN MODEM MUDAH ALIH


3 2 1 devices4

3.2.1 Devices

3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following:

HUB/SWITCH

  • HUB OR SWITCH IS A COMMON CONNECTION POINT FOR DEVICES IN A NETWORK. HUBS ARE COMMONLY USED TO CONNECT SEGMENTS OF A LAN.

  • HUB ATAU SWITCH ADALAH POINT RANGKAIAN YANG BIASA BAGI PERANTI DALAM RANGKAIAN. HUB BIASA DIGUNA DALAM SET RANGKAIAN BAGI LAN.


3 2 1 devices5

3.2.1 Devices

3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following:

ROUTER

A ROUTER IS A COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE THAT CONNECTS

MULTIPLE COMPUTERS OR OTHER ROUTERS TOGETHER AND

TRANSMITS DATA TO THE CORRECT DESTINATION.

MERUPAKAN PERANTI TELEKOMUNIKASI YANG MENGHUBUNGKAN

PC DALAM JUMLAH BANYAK ATAU ANTARA ROUTERS BERSAMA

DAN MENGHANTAR DATA KE DESTINASI YANG BETUL


3 2 1 devices6

3.2.1 Devices

3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following:

WIRELESS ACCESS POINT

  • A WIRELESS ACCESS POINT IS A CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE THAT ALLOW COMPUTERS TO TRANSFER DATA. THIS DEVICE CAN HELP INFORMATION TO BE

  • TRANSFERRED WIRELESSLY TO OTHER WIRELESS DEVICES OR TO A WIRED NETWORK.

  • WIRELESS ACCESS POINT HAS HIGH QUALITY ANTENNAS FOR OPTIMAL SIGNALS.

  • MERUPAKAN ALAT PENERIMAAN MENGGUNAKAN SIGNAL BAGI TUJUAN PENGHANTARAN DAN PENERIMAAN DATA SECARA TANPA WAYAR.


3 2 2 medium

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable

TWISTED-PAIR CABLE

THE TWISTED-PAIR CABLE IS GENERALLY A COMMON FORM OF

TRANSMISSION MEDIUM. IT CONSISTS OF TWO WIRES OR CONDUCTORS

TWISTED TOGETHER, EACH WITH ITS OWN PLASTIC INSULATION. THE TWISTED

WIRES CANCEL OUT ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE THAT CAN CAUSE

CROSSTALK . THE MOST COMMON CONNECTOR USED FOR TP CABLE IS RJ-45.

KABEL TWISTED PAIR MERUPAKAN KABEL ASAS YANG BIASA DIGUNAKAN

DALAM MEDIUM PENGHANTARAN.MENGANDUNGI 2 WAYAR ATAU KONDUKTOR

YANG DISIMPUL BERSAMA DAN STIAP SATUNYA DISALUTI PLASTIK LUARAN.

PENYAMBUNG YANG BIASA DIGUNA ADALAH RJ5


3 2 2 medium1

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable

TYPES OF TWISTED PAIR CABLETHE

UNSHIELDED TWISTED-PAIR OR UTP IS THE MOST COMMON TWISTED-PAIR CABLE USED

IN COMMUNICATIONS. IT HAS FOUR PAIRS OF COLOUR-CODED TWISTED-PAIR CABLES

THAT ARE COVERED WITH A PLASTIC OUTER JACKET.

KABEL UTP MERUPAKAN KABEL YANG BIASA DIGUNAKAN DALAM KOMUNIKASI. IA ADA

4 PASANG KABEL YANG DISIMPUL.

THE SHIELDED TWISTED-PAIR OR STP IS ANOTHER FORM OF TWISTED-PAIR CABLE. ITS

FOUR PAIRS OF COLOUR-CODED WIRES ARE EACH WRAPPED IN METALLIC FOIL, AND

ALL FOUR ARE THEN COLLECTIVELY WRAPPED IN A LAYER OF METALLIC BRAID OR

FOIL. FINALLY, THIS LAYER IS WRAPPED WITH A PLASTIC OUTER JACKET.

KABEL STP MERUPAKAN SATU LAGI JENIS KABEL TWISTED PAIR. JUGA ADA 4 PASANG

KABEL YANG DISIMPUL BERSAMA DAN KESEMUANYA DISALUT SATU LAPISAN

METALLIC FOIL. METALLIC FOIL ITU PULA DISALUT JAKET LUARAN


3 2 2 medium2

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable

COAXIAL CABLE

  • THE COAXIAL CABLE, OFTEN REFERRED TO AS ‘COAX’, CONSISTS OF A SINGLE COPPER WIRE SURROUNDED BY AT LEAST THREE LAYERS.THEY ARE AN INSULATING MATERIAL, A WOVEN OR BRAIDED METAL AND A PLASTIC OUTER COATING.

  • BIASA DIPANGGIL SEBAGAI COAX. MENGANDUNGI SATU WAYAR TEMBAGA DISALUT SEKURANG-KURANG 3 LAPISAN IAITU LAPISAN FABRIK BESI TENUN DAN PLASTIK LUARAN

  • THIS CABLE IS OFTEN USED AS CABLE TELEVISION (CATV) NETWORK WIRING BECAUSE IT CAN BE CABLED OVER LONGER DISTANCES IN COMPARISON TO THE TWISTED-PAIR CABLE.

  • BIASANYA ADALAH KABEL TELEVISYEN SEBAB KETAHANAN DAN BOLEH DIGUNA UNTUK JARAK YANG JAUH.


3 2 2 medium3

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable

COAXIAL CABLE

CONNECTORS FOR THE COAXIAL CABLE

  • THE CONNECTOR MOST COMMONLY USED IN CONNECTING A COAXIAL CABLE TO A DEVICE IS THE BNC CONNECTOR. BNC IS SHORT FOR BRITISH NAVAL CONNECTOR OR BAYONET-NEILL-CONCELMAN.

  • PENGHUBUNG YANG BIASA DIGUNAKAN UNTUK COAXIAL KABEL KEPADA PERANTI ADALAH PENYAMBUNG BNC (BRITISH NAVAL CONNECTOR)

  • THERE ARE THREE POPULAR BNC CONNECTORS. THEY ARE:

    - BNC CONNECTOR: USED TO CONNECT DEVICES SUCH AS THE TV SET

    - BNC T CONNECTOR: USED IN ETHERNET NETWORKS

    - BNC TERMINATOR: CONNECTED AT THE END OF A CABLE TO PREVENT

    THE REFLECTION OF SIGNALS

  • ADA 3 JENIS PENYAMBUNG BNC YANG POPULAR. IANYA ADALAH…

    - PENYAMBUNG BNC – UNTUK TV

    - PENYAMBUNG BNC T – RANGKAIAN ETHERNET

    - PENYAMBUNG BNC TERMINATOR – DISAMBUNG PADA HUJUNG KABEL

    UNTUK MENGELAKKAN REFLEKSI DARIPADA SIGNAL..


3 2 2 medium4

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable

FIBRE OPTIC CABLE

  • THE FIBRE OPTIC CABLE IS A NETWORKING MEDIUM THAT USES LIGHT FOR DATA TRANSMISSION.

  • THE INTENSITY OF LIGHT IS INCREASED AND DECREASED TO REPRESENT BINARY ONE AND ZERO.

  • ITS CORE CONSISTS OF DOZENS OR HUNDREDS OF THIN STRANDS OF GLASS OR PLASTIC WHICH USES LIGHT TO TRANSMIT SIGNALS.

  • EACH STRAND, CALLED AN OPTICAL FIBRE, IS AS THIN AS A HUMAN HAIR.

  • ADALAH MEDIUM RANGKAIAN YANG MENGGUNAKAN

  • CAHAYA UNTUK PENGHANTARAN DATA. KEUPAYAAN CAHAYA UNTUK BERKURANG ATAU BERTAMBAH DITAKRIFKAN SEBAGAI 0 DAN 1 DALAM

    KOD BINARI


3 2 2 medium5

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable

FIBRE OPTIC CABLE - PARTS OF A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE

  • INSIDE A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE, EACH OPTICAL FIBRE IS CLAD WITH AN INSULATING GLASS AND A PROTECTIVE COATING. TYPICALLY, A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE HAS FIVE PARTS. 5 BAHAGIAN KABEL FIBER OPTIK

    1. THE CORE IS THE LIGHT TRANSMISSION ELEMENT. IT IS TYPICALLY MADE

    OF GLASS OR PLASTIC.

    TERAS- ADALAH ELEMEN PENGHANTARAN CAHAYA. BIASA DIPERBUAT DARIPADA KACA ATAU PLASTIK

    2.CLADDING SURROUNDS THE CORE.IT IS ALSO MADE OF GLASS OR PLASTIC BUT IS LESS DENSE THAN THE CORE.

    LAPISAN PELINDUNG TERAS – JUGA DIPERBUAT DARI KACA ATAU PLASTIK CUMA LEBIH PADAT DARIPADA TERAS

    3.BUFFER SURROUNDS CLADDING. IT IS USUALLY MADE OF PLASTIC AND HELPS SHIELDS THE CORE AND CLADDING FROM BEING DAMAGED.

    LAPISAN MENGELILINGI PELINDUNG TERAS – BIASANYA DIPERBUAT DARIPADA PLASTIK DAN MEMBANTU MELINDUNGI TERAS DAN PELINDUNGNYA DRPD ROSAK

    4.A STRENGTHENING MATERIAL SURROUNDS THE BUFFER TO PREVENT THE FIBRE CABLE FROM BEING STRETCHED WHEN INSTALLERS PULL IT.

    BAHAN TAHAN LASAK – MENGELILINGI LAPISAN PELINDUNG TERS BAGI MENGELAKKAN KABEL DARIPADA CALAR DAN ROSAK

    5.OUTER JACKET SURROUNDS THE CABLE TO PROTECT THE FIBRE AGAINST ABRASION, SOLVENTS AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS.

    JAKET LUARAN – BAHAGIAN LUAR YANG MEGHALANG KABEL DARIPADA ROSAK


3 2 2 medium6

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable

FIBRE OPTIC CABLE - CONNECTORS OF A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE

THE MOST COMMONLY USED FIBRE OPTIC CONNECTORS ARE SC, ST, FC AND MT-RJ.

ADA 4 JENIS PENYAMBUNG BAGI KABEL FIBER OPTIK.

1.SC - A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE CONNECTOR THAT USES A PUSH-PULL LATCHING MECHANISM SIMILAR TO COMMON AUDIO AND VIDEO CABLES.

KABEL YANG BIASA DIGUNA UNTUK PENYAMBUNG AUDIO DAN KABEL VIDEO

2.ST - A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE CONNECTOR THAT USES A BAYONET PLUG & SOCKET.

KABEL PENYAMBUNG BAGI PLUG BAYONET DAN SOKET

3.FC - A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE CONNECTOR THAT USES A THREADED PLUG & SOCKET.

KABEL PENYAMBUNG BAGI PLUG THREADED DAN SOKET

4.MT-RJ -MECHANICAL TRANSFER REGISTERED JACK (MT-RJ), A FIBRE OPTICS

CONNECTOR POPULAR FOR SMALL FORM FACTOR DEVICES DUE TO ITS

SMALL SIZE.

KABEL PENYAMBUNG YANG POPULAR UNTUK PERANTI-PERANTI KECIL.

ADA TERDAPAT DALAM PC. WAYAR SATA CONTOHNYA


3 2 2 medium7

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.2 Identify various types of wireless transmission media such as infrared, radio wave and microwave

RADIO WAVES

THERE IS NO CLEAR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RADIO WAVES AND

MICROWAVES. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES RANGING IN FREQUENCIES

BETWEEN 3 KHZ AND 1 GHZ ARE NORMALLY CALLED RADIO WAVES.

WAVES RANGING IN FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 1 AND 300 GHZ ARE

NORMALLY CALLED MICROWAVES.

TIDAK BANYAK PRBEZAAN ANTARA GELOMBANG RADIO DAN

GELOMBANG MIKRO KECUALI DARI SEGI KEKUATAN FREKUENSI.

  • GELOMBANG RADIO – FREKUENSI ANTARA 3 KHZ HINGGA 1 GHZ

  • GELOMBANG MIKRO – FREKUENSI ANTARA 1 GHZ HINGGA 300 GHZ


3 2 2 medium8

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.2 Identify various types of wireless transmission media such as infrared, radio wave and microwave

MICROWAVES

ELECTRONIC WAVES WITH FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 1 GHZ TO

300GHZ ARE NORMALLY CALLED MICROWAVES.

UNLIKE RADIO WAVES, MICROWAVES ARE UNIDIRECTIONAL, IN

WHICH THE SENDING AND RECEIVING ANTENNAS NEED TO BE

ALIGNED.

TIDAK SEPERTI GELOMBANG RADIO, GELOMBANG MIKRO

BERGERAK SECARA BERTABURAN. IA MEMERLUKAN ANTENNA

UNTUK MENGHANTAR DAN MENERIMA.


3 2 2 medium9

3.2.2 Medium

3.2.2.2 Identify various types of wireless transmission media such as infrared, radio wave and microwave

INFRARED

  • INFRARED IS USED IN DEVICES SUCH AS THE MOUSE, WIRELESS KEYBOARD AND PRINTERS. SOME MANUFACTURERS PROVIDE A SPECIAL PORT CALLED THE IRDA PORT THAT ALLOWS A WIRELESS KEYBOARD TO COMMUNICATE WITH A PC. INFRARED SIGNALS HAVE FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 300 GHZ TO 400 THZ. THEY ARE USED FOR SHORT-RANGE COMMUNICATION.

  • INFRA MERAH DIGUNAKAN OLEH PERANTI-PERANTI SEPERTI MOUSE TANPA WAYAR, PAPAN KEKUNCI TANPA WAYAR, PENCETAK TANPA WAYAR DAN SEBAGAINYA. SESETENGAH PENGELUAR MEMBEKALKAN SATU PORT KHAS DIPANGGIL IrDA YANG MEMBENARKAN PERANTI-PERANTI SEPERTI DI ATAS BERKOMUNIKASI DENGAN PC. FREKUENSINYA PULA ANTARA 300GHZ HINGGA 400GHZ.

  • BANYAK DIGUNAKAN BAGI JARAK-JARAK YANG SANGAT PENDEK.


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