Praxis II: Principles of Learning & Teaching K-6 & 7-12 Review Session, part 2. Dr. Mark Hawkes Dakota State University. Study Topics. Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Instructional Strategies Assessment Strategies.
Dr. Mark Hawkes
Dakota State University
Definition: Forces which energize, direct, and sustain behavior
Situated Motivation: The influence of the environment to motivate a person to behave in particular ways.
Process information for long-term storage
Realize learning is a process trying hard and working through temporary setbacks
Most benefit from classroom experience
Avoid challenging tasks
Shoot for only minimal performance outcomes
Student Motivation and the Learning Environment . . . Motivation to Learn: Meaningfulness of Activities Learning Goals vs. Performance Goals
Definition: The desire to like and be liked by others, to seek out friendly relationships
Learning Implication: Find ways to help students learn subject matter and meet affiliation needs at the same time
Strategies: Role play, debates, cooperative learning, competitions among two or more teams . . .
Definition: A desire to gain acceptance and positive judgments from other people
Learning Implication: Students may be engage in a task to please an authority figure
Strategies: Praise students frequently for the things they do well keeping in mind the balance of approval student desire from peers as opposed to teachers.
Definition: Feeling of uneasiness about an event because you do not know about the outcome
Learning Implication: Highly anxious students tend to achieve at lower levels that those at which they are capable of achieving
Definition: explanations of an “attributes” success or failure
Influencing factors on attribution: past successes and failures, rewards and punishment, expectations, messages about success or failure (earned or unearned?)
Seek challenging goals, seek challenges, persist in failure
Achieve better over the long run.
Attribute successes to to outside and uncontrollable factors
Students generally underestimate their own ability
Students set easy goals, avoid challenges, and respond to failure in counterproductive ways.Student Motivation and the Learning Environment . . . Motivation: Locus of Control
Mastery Orientation vs. Learned Helplessness
Definition: when behaviors are followed by desirable consequences they tech to increase in frequency. When behaviors produce results, they decrease or disappear.
The response occurs as the result of the stimulus—the learner has no control over whether the response occurs
The response is usually voluntary—the learner can control whether or not it occursStudent Motivation and the Learning Environment . . . Motivation: Operant Conditioning
Classical vs. Operant
General belief system about how the world operates. Theories are composed of the concepts and relationships among components of the belief system.
Definition: Applying skills or knowledge from a previous experience in a new situation.
Definition: Evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy or worth.
Definition: Knowledge and beliefs regarding one’s own cognitive processes and the attempt to regulate these processes to maximize learning and memory.
Successful Strategies: Teach how to study content (note taking, elaboration, summarizing, organizing, identifying important information).
Darci Love Huron, 8th GradeOrganizing the Study of 8th grade history
Rachel Rassmussen Rapid City Central HS
9th grade Geophysical Science
Jason Smidt, Medary Elem. Brooking Level: 5th Grade
This diagram is a wonderful way to explain the ecological food pyramid. It uses graphics to easily show what animals are in each group. It also show the sun and shows photosynthesis.
Lorna Hofer, Tech Facilitator Watertown School District
Often Anonymous Identified
Partial Integrative Specific Holistic
Mainly Subtext Mostly Text Suggestive Rigorous
During instructional phase
InformalAssessment Strategies . . . Purposes
Very practical, usually spontaneous
Good for assessing students “interest” in a subject
Flexible to spur of the moment changes and adjustments
Will rarely, if ever, be standardized
Focus on assessing understanding within a specific content domain
Very much planned in advance
Closely tied to guiding instructional objectives
Bases results on “samples” of contentAssessment Strategies . . . Formal vs. Informal
Can sample knowledge on many topics in a short time
Students should understand scoring process
Portray the assessment as an opportunity to improve skills
Efficiently uses class time
Helps reduce the “evaluative” climate
Difficult to achieve standardization and reliability
Often time-consuming to administer and scoreAssessment Strategies . . . Paper/Pencil vs. Performance
Tells us what the students have achieved in relation to specific instructional objectives
Oriented to achieving mastery
Diagnoses weaknesses very wellAssessment Strategies . . . Criterion vs. Normed
Tests high-level cognitive skills, but, time-consuming to grade and difficult to ensure reliability.