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Prof. R. Shanthini Dept of Chemical & Process Engineering University of Peradeniya September 05, 2010. Industrial Pollution Control. Biodegradable Industrial Waste.

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Industrial pollution control

Prof. R. Shanthini

Dept of Chemical & Process Engineering

University of Peradeniya

September 05, 2010

Industrial Pollution Control


Biodegradable Industrial Waste

Wastewater from many industries using biomass as raw materials contains mostly carbohydrates (sugars, starch, cellulose and lignin) and fats and proteins.

These organics are biodegradable, that is, decomposed to simple end products by the biliions and billions of microorganisms found nature.

Some organics are aerobically biodegraded (by aerobic microbes) and others are anaerobically biodegraded (by anaerobic microbes).


Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

  • Concentration of aerobically biodegradable organic matter (such as sugars, starch and other simple organics) is quantified by the amount of oxygen consumed during the aerobic microbial (mostly bacterial) degradation of the waste under controlled conditions.

  • This measurement is known as the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the wastewater concerned.

  • To be precise, BOD is written as BOD5 at 20oC, which means the biochemical oxygen demand of the wastewater for 5 days of microbial degradation at 20oC.


BOD (continued)

  • The water body is considered to be very clean if its BOD5 at 20oC is less than 1 mg/litre (i.e. ppm).

  • The cleanliness of the waterbody is considered poor if its BOD5 at 20oC is more than 5 mg/litre.

  • The BOD5 estimate however excludes complex organics such as cellulose, lignin, chitin, and proteins, which cannot be readily biodegraded by bacteria.


Cellulose

  • Cellulose provides strength and flexibility to the plants.

  • It is the most abundant organic compound of natural origin.

  • The molecular weight of cellulose ranges from 300,000 to 500,000 (1800 to 3000 glucose units).

  • Since certain bacteria can hydrolyse cellulose, biological treatment of cellulose containing wastes is possible.

  • However, aerobic treatment of cellulose is slow.


Cellulose (continued)

  • Most of the cellulose does not get aerobically biodegraded and will settle to produce sludge during aerobic digestion.

  • The sludge produced during aerobic treatment is separated by sedimentation, filtration or centrifugation, and is either used as a landfill or incinerated.

  • This sludge could also be subjected to anaerobic digestion (in the absence of oxygen) to produce biogas.


Lignin

  • Lignin, a macromolecular organic compound, is a major structural component of all plant cell walls along with cellulose.

  • While cellulose provides strength and flexibility, lignin supports and protects the cellulose from biological and chemical attack.

  • Lignin is thus very stable against bacterial degradation even though white-rot fungi can degrade it to some extent in a very slow reaction.



Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

  • Since the BOD measurement includes only the readily biodegradable organics that are decomposed aerobically by simple bacteria, we use the chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement to indicate the amount of oxidisable material present in the effluent sample that can be oxidised by a strong chemical oxidant.


COD type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind. (continued)

  • If the COD and BOD measurements are nearly the same then the effluent can be biologically degraded under aerobic, facultative and anaerobic conditions.

  • Any difference between the COD and BOD measurements may indicate the presence of cellulosic matter that cannot be readily biodegraded aerobically by bacteria alone.

  • If there is a large difference between the COD and BOD measurements with very high COD values then it can be taken as an indication of the amount of biologically resistant organic matter such as lignin present in the effluent.


Recommended limit for discharges type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

  • Into inland surface waters

  • - 30 mg/litre of BOD5 at 20oC

  • - 250 mg/litre of COD

  • On land for irrigation purposes

  • - 250 mg/litre of BOD5 at 20oC

  • - 400 mg/litre of COD

  • Into marine coastal areas

  • - 100 mg/litre of BOD5 at 20oC

  • - 250 mg/litre of COD

Source: National Environmental (Protection and Quality) Regulations No. 1 of 2008 under the National Environmental Act, No 47 of 1980


Sap: type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

BOD = 15,000 mg/L

COD = 40,000 mg/L

Wastewater:

BOD = 10,000 mg/L

COD = 20,000 mg/L

Desiccated

Coconut

Natural

Rubber

Processing

BOD = 5000 mg/L

COD = 9000 mg/L

Textile Mills

Colour removal

COD = 1900 mg/L

BOD = 30 – 250 mg/L

COD = 250 – 400 mg/L

Rice Mills

COD = 8000 mg/L

National Environmental Act,

No. 47 of 1980

(1990 & 2008 amendments)

Brewery

BOD = 1500 mg/L

COD = 4000 mg/L


Brewery effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

3 to 10 litres of water used per litre of beer produced

(Lions Brewery produces 45 million liters of beer per year)

Beer

Beer

manufacture

Malted Barley

Aerobic

treatment

Water

Wastewater

Treated

wastewater

Brewery Wastewater Sludge (BWS)

Spent grain (wet)

(may be used

as cattle feed)

2006

Compost

Standard: BOD = 30 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

BOD = 1000-1500 mg/L; COD = 1000-4000 mg/L


Brewery effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

continued…….

Beer

Beer

manufacture

Malted Barley

Water

Wastewater

Biogas

Leachate

Anaerobic

treatment

Spent grain (wet)

Dry spend grain

Leach the spent grain using wastewater

COD increased from 3000 to 50,000 mg/L (Leachate)

Standard: BOD = 30 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

BOD = 1000-1500 mg/L; COD = 1000-4000 mg/L


Brewery effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

continued…….

Beer

Beer

manufacture

Malted Barley

Water

Wastewater

Slurry

Spent grain (wet)

Spent grain slurries using wastewater

COD increased from 3000 to 14,000 mg/L (slurry)

Standard: BOD = 30 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

BOD = 1000-1500 mg/L; COD = 1000-4000 mg/L


Brewery effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

continued…….

developed by

Dr. K. Kanagachandran

Manager, Special Projects, Lions Brewery

has a Bachelors Degree in Microbiology and PhD in Biotechnology from Herefordshire University, UK

reduction of 3150 litres per day furnace oil,

and thereby 30% in fuel bill

($80,000 saved per year)

Standard: BOD = 30 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

BOD = 1000-1500 mg/L; COD = 1000-4000 mg/L


Natural Rubber Processing Industrial Effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

40-50 litres of wastewater produced per kg of rubber produced

(Sri Lanka produces 115 million kg of rubber per year)

Standard: BOD = 50 – 60 mg/L & COD = 400 mg/L (inland surface water)

BOD = 1000-5000 mg/L; COD = 2000-9000 mg/L


Natural Rubber Processing Industrial Effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

continued…….

Anaerobic treatment

Covered Activated Ditch (CAD)

Biogas

  • - concrete reinforced cement block ditches

  • lined with UV stabilized polythene sheet for waterproofing

  • covered with odour filters to control odour emissions

  • equipped with stationary bio-brush media to retain biomass

coir-fibre arranged in bottle-brush configuration bounded by a novel plastic binding technique

developed for the industry since 1991 by

M. Thurul Warnakula

Standard: BOD = 50 – 60 mg/L & COD = 400 mg/L (inland surface water)

BOD = 1000-5000 mg/L; COD = 2000-9000 mg/L


Natural Rubber Processing Industrial Effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

continued…….

Taxing the polluter

Still Polluting (in 2006)

Rs. 26/= of tax per 100 gm of COD per year

Standard: BOD = 50 – 60 mg/L & COD = 400 mg/L (inland surface water)

BOD = 1000-5000 mg/L; COD = 2000-9000 mg/L


Textile Mill Effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

Adsorption by burnt-brick and other selected materials

good treatment in all sense

Up-flow anaerobic attached-growth bioreactors filled with pre-treated coir fibres

Fe and Mn removal in SO42- reducing conditions

Standard: BOD = 60 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

COD = 400-1900 mg/L; colour removal


Textile Mill Effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

continued…….

Use of water hyacinth at the Veyangoda Mills

good; effluent requires further polishing

Water hyacinth with rubber factory effluent

Water hyacinth for N and P removal from synthetic effluents

Standard: BOD = 60 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

COD = 400-1900 mg/L; colour removal


Desiccated Coconut Industrial Effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

40,000 – 60,000 litres of sap + wastewater per day in a 50,000 nuts per day capacity industry

Sap:

BOD = 13,000 - 15,000 mg/L; COD = 40,000 mg/L

Wastewater:

BOD = 6000 -10,000 mg/L; COD = 17,000 - 20,000 mg/L

Standard: BOD = 30 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)


Desiccated Coconut Industrial Effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

continued…….

Up-flow anaerobic floating filter (UAFF) system

  • - three anaerobic filter reactors in series

  • - coir fibre as the bacteria growth media

  • a sedimentation tank and a biogas filter

good; effluent requires further polishing

developed by M.D.A. Athula Jayamanne

used with DC mills, distilleries, breweries, textile mills, garment factories, rice mills, hotels, bakeries, piggeries, farms and slaughterhouses

Sap: BOD = 13,000 - 15,000 mg/L; COD = 40,000 mg/L

Standard: BOD = 30 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

Standard: BOD = 30 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

Wastewater: BOD = 6000 -10,000 mg/L; COD = 17,000 - 20,000 mg/L

Wastewater: BOD = 6000 -10,000 mg/L; COD = 17,000 - 20,000 mg/L


Rice Mill Effluents type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

Up-flow anaerobic floating filter (UAFF) of Athula Jayamanne

Wetlands with common cattail (Typha latifolia)

ongoing

Paddy husk charcoal as adsorbent

Standard: BOD = 30 mg/L & COD = 250 mg/L (inland surface water)

Wastewater: COD = 3,000 - 8,000 mg/L


Electrochemistry in effluent treatment type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

Electrodialysis treatment of black liquor from pulp mill

Electrodialysis treatment of photographic effluent

Electrocoagulation treatment of oily wastewaters

Published in 2010

Microbial fuel cell treatment

96.5% COD removal

84% lignin removal

81% phenol removal was 81%

2.3 W/m3 power produced


Microbial Fuel Cells type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

wastewater

anode

cathode

Source: http://parts.mit.edu/igem07/images/2/2d/Fuelcell.JPG


To the Water type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

BOD

COD

oil and grease

Suspended particles

Colour

Chemicals

Toxic materials

Heated water


State of freshwater in 2000 type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

GOOD

GRIM

But,

the pointer

is here

We want

the pointer

to be here


State of freshwater in 2000 type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

Water consumption

has increased

35 times in the

last 300 years

Population rose only sevenfold

in the

last 300 years


Concluding Remarks type of organic compounds that are resistant to bacterial degradation of any kind.

  • no-electricity, no-maintenance anaerobic treatment methodologies which generate biogas are available – innovated by Sri Lankans

  • Yet, industrial pollution persists

  • Pollution tax is suggested

  • Modelling is not done (most of them are laboratory studies; some are with synthetic effluents)

  • Sustainable process technology are not researched

  • Life cycle analysis are not done


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