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Cytokines. Cytokines and their Receptors in Inter-Cellular Communication. Cytokines-Based Diseases and Cytokine Therapy. Updated: November 28, 2011. Folder title: Cytokine. Key Hematopoietic Growth Factors and Their Targets. Relatively Multi-Specific:

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Cytokines and their Receptors in Inter-Cellular Communication

Cytokines-Based Diseases and Cytokine Therapy

Updated: November 28, 2011

Folder title: Cytokine

Key Hematopoietic Growth Factors and Their Targets

Relatively Multi-Specific:

Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor GMCSF

Interleukin III - IL3

Relatively Mono-Specific:

Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor - GCSF

Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor - MCSF

Erythropoietin - EPO


Cytokine Table

Macrophage to T-Helper

Inter-Leukins and IL-Receptors

Interleukin Actions

Gamma Interferon

Pleiotropic activity of Interferon Gamma.

Immunology, 5th Edition, Figure 15-15, p. 355

Table of Redundancy and Pleiotropy

See Table 15-3, Immunology, 5th Edition, p. 350


TH1 and TH2 in Disease


Roles of TH1 and TH2

Cytokines and TH1 and TH2

See Table 12-4, p. 315, Immunology, 6th Edition

Functions of TH1 and TH2

TH1 and TH2 Helper Cell Subsets in the Pathology and Progression of Infection with Mycobacterium lepraeTuberculoid (Cell-mediated) and Lepromatous (Humoral response) Leprosy(Figure 12-14, Immunology, 6th Edition, p. 318)


Discovery of IL1

In this graphic, PHA (phytohemagglutinin) is a non-specific mitogen that stimulates T-cell proliferation measured by labeled thymidine incorporation into the cell culture. Why use PHA? Why not use a specific T-cell antigen?

Response Grid

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The Specific Cytokines that are present, and their concentrations matter in how the immune response reacts.

The presence and structure of cytokines receptors matter just as much as the cytokines themselves.

IL2 Receptor Family

Figure 12-7 (c)

Kuby, 6th Ed.,

p. 309


Cytokines, Cytokine Receptors, and Human Disease(Part 1)

Bacterial Septic Shock:

Bacterial Cell-wall Endotoxins

Macrophage Overproduction if IL-1 and


Bacterial Toxic Shock

Polyclonal activation of T-cells by Super-Antigens

Over-production of IL-1, TNF, other cytokines

Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

Inappropriate Expression of IL-2 and IL-2R

Chagas Disease

Blocked Expression of IL-2R Alpha Subunit


Cytokines, Cytokine Receptors, and Human Disease (Part 2)

X-Linked Severe Combined Immune-Deficiency


Boy-in-the Bubble Syndrome

Failure to Express IL-2R Gamma Subunit

May Also Affect IL4R and IL7R

Produces Broad-ranging Immune Unresponsiveness

Anti-inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Viral Products as Mimics of Cytokinesand Cytokine Receptors


Gamma C Subunit Shared

Severe Combined Immune Deficiency or “Boy-in-a-bubble Syndrome” arises because of

  • A congenital abnormality affecting cytokine synthesis

  • A severe viral infection

  • A congenital abnormality affecting the coding of cytokine receptor subunit

  • A metabolic defect that generates an inhibitor of a cytokine receptor

  • A bacterial endotoxin

  • An autoimmune antibody attack

Response Grid

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Immunosuppression and


Effects of Viral Mimics

of Cytokines and of

Cytokine Receptors.

(Kuby, 6th Ed., p. 314)

Viral Mimics of Cytokines and Receptors

For information on chemokines,

See Table 13-2, p. 330,

and footnotes to Table 13-2,

Kuby, 6th Edition.

Not part of BIO 447 Exams

or Quizzes.

Viral Mimics

(This is a fill-in-the-blank question)Several viruses are known to produce soluble interferon-γ receptors (INFγR).Why would producing a soluble INFγR be something the virus “wants” to do? Why does that help the virus?(You can use INF to abbreviate interferon-γ)__________________________________

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Other Sources of Cytokines used in Host Response to Pathogens:

e.g. Mediators in Type I Immediate Hypersensitivity

Overview of Mast Cell Mediated Type I ImmediateHypersensitivity: Triggering of Sensitized Cells and Release of Early and Late Mediators:How Do We Treat This???


Cytokines in Therapy of Diseases

Since cytokines have potent activities at low concentrations in controlling responses of host cells to normal and pathological events, can we use Cytokines deliberately in therapy?

Tumor Necrosis Factor and Melanocytes

Tumor Necrosis Factor in Vivo

Tumor Necrosis Factor and Weight Loss

Cytokine Therapies in the Clinic

LAK Cells

TIL Cells

On a scale of -2 to +2 rate:1 = -2 = I’m totally lost; 2 = -1 = I’m having a hard time but I get some of it3 = 0 = I’m doing OK. I get a lot of it. I’ll figure the rest out later4 = +1 = I’m doing fine. I get most of it; 5 = +2 = This is no problem. Please get moving before I get totally bored


I am here!

  • Yes

  • No

  • Not sure

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Hematopoietic Cytokines and Hematopoiesis:

Immunology, 5th Edition, Figure 12-16,

p. 297

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IL1, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFά) and IL6 all promote fever responses These three cytokines are ___________________ in this effect.

  • Antagonistic

  • Pleiotropic

  • Redundant

  • Synergistic

  • Independent

  • Mutually exclusive

Response Grid

IL4 and IL10 inhibit activation of Th1 cells and enhance activation of Th2 cells. Interferon Gamma inhibits the activation of Th2 cells and stimulates the activation of Th1 cells. That means that IL4 and IL10 on the one hand and Interferon gamma on the other handare ___________________ .

  • Antagonistic

  • Pleiotropic

  • Redundant

  • Synergistic

  • Independent

  • Mutually exclusive

Response Grid

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