Cytokines. Cytokines and their Receptors in Inter-Cellular Communication. Cytokines-Based Diseases and Cytokine Therapy. Updated: November 28, 2011. Folder title: Cytokine. Key Hematopoietic Growth Factors and Their Targets. Relatively Multi-Specific:
Cytokines and their Receptors in Inter-Cellular Communication
Cytokines-Based Diseases and Cytokine Therapy
Updated: November 28, 2011
Folder title: Cytokine
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor GMCSF
Interleukin III - IL3
Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor - GCSF
Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor - MCSF
Erythropoietin - EPO
Pleiotropic activity of Interferon Gamma.
Immunology, 5th Edition, Figure 15-15, p. 355
See Table 15-3, Immunology, 5th Edition, p. 350
See Table 12-4, p. 315, Immunology, 6th Edition
TH1 and TH2 Helper Cell Subsets in the Pathology and Progression of Infection with Mycobacterium lepraeTuberculoid (Cell-mediated) and Lepromatous (Humoral response) Leprosy(Figure 12-14, Immunology, 6th Edition, p. 318)
In this graphic, PHA (phytohemagglutinin) is a non-specific mitogen that stimulates T-cell proliferation measured by labeled thymidine incorporation into the cell culture. Why use PHA? Why not use a specific T-cell antigen?
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The Specific Cytokines that are present, and their concentrations matter in how the immune response reacts.
The presence and structure of cytokines receptors matter just as much as the cytokines themselves.
Figure 12-7 (c)
Kuby, 6th Ed.,
Bacterial Septic Shock:
Bacterial Cell-wall Endotoxins
Macrophage Overproduction if IL-1 and
Bacterial Toxic Shock
Polyclonal activation of T-cells by Super-Antigens
Over-production of IL-1, TNF, other cytokines
Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Inappropriate Expression of IL-2 and IL-2R
Blocked Expression of IL-2R Alpha Subunit
X-Linked Severe Combined Immune-Deficiency
Boy-in-the Bubble Syndrome
Failure to Express IL-2R Gamma Subunit
May Also Affect IL4R and IL7R
Produces Broad-ranging Immune Unresponsiveness
Anti-inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Viral Products as Mimics of Cytokinesand Cytokine Receptors
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Effects of Viral Mimics
of Cytokines and of
(Kuby, 6th Ed., p. 314)
For information on chemokines,
See Table 13-2, p. 330,
and footnotes to Table 13-2,
Kuby, 6th Edition.
Not part of BIO 447 Exams
(This is a fill-in-the-blank question)Several viruses are known to produce soluble interferon-γ receptors (INFγR).Why would producing a soluble INFγR be something the virus “wants” to do? Why does that help the virus?(You can use INF to abbreviate interferon-γ)__________________________________
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Other Sources of Cytokines used in Host Response to Pathogens:
e.g. Mediators in Type I Immediate Hypersensitivity
Overview of Mast Cell Mediated Type I ImmediateHypersensitivity: Triggering of Sensitized Cells and Release of Early and Late Mediators:How Do We Treat This???
Cytokines in Therapy of Diseases
Since cytokines have potent activities at low concentrations in controlling responses of host cells to normal and pathological events, can we use Cytokines deliberately in therapy?
On a scale of -2 to +2 rate:1 = -2 = I’m totally lost; 2 = -1 = I’m having a hard time but I get some of it3 = 0 = I’m doing OK. I get a lot of it. I’ll figure the rest out later4 = +1 = I’m doing fine. I get most of it; 5 = +2 = This is no problem. Please get moving before I get totally bored
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Hematopoietic Cytokines and Hematopoiesis:
Immunology, 5th Edition, Figure 12-16,
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IL4 and IL10 inhibit activation of Th1 cells and enhance activation of Th2 cells. Interferon Gamma inhibits the activation of Th2 cells and stimulates the activation of Th1 cells. That means that IL4 and IL10 on the one hand and Interferon gamma on the other handare ___________________ .
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