The technology in e government
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The Technology in E-government. PAD 6710: Lecture 3. M, E, P government. Four levels of e-government E-gov information Providing govt. info. online E-gov Automation Automating manual work E-gov reengineering Redesign of existing processes P-gov innovation Performance government

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The Technology in E-government

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The technology in e government

The Technology in E-government

PAD 6710: Lecture 3


M e p government

M, E, P government

  • Four levels of e-government

    • E-gov information

      • Providing govt. info. online

    • E-gov Automation

      • Automating manual work

    • E-gov reengineering

      • Redesign of existing processes

    • P-gov innovation

      • Performance government

      • 311 (Customer Relationship Management)


Technologies

Technologies

  • Computers: Smart Machines?

  • Communication systems

  • Communications infrastructure

  • Emerging technology trends

    • RFID

    • GIS


Computer systems

Computer systems

  • First generation computers (1951-58)

    • Vacuum tube circuits [ENIAC to UNIVAC]

    • Machine Language

  • Second generation (1959-63)

    • Transistors; mainframe computers

    • Compiler Programs (FORTRAN/ COBOL)

  • Third generation (1964-75)

    • Minicomputers (DEC); Integrated circuits (LSI)

    • BASIC, ALGOL

  • Fourth generation (1970s-)

    • Microprocessors (VLSI)

    • Industry specific softwares


Computers

Computers

  • Laptops

    • 1979-87: Emerging period

    • 1987-95: Diversification period (Apple)

    • 1995-2001: Standardization period (of Operating Systems)

    • 2001-: Growth period (Netbooks included)

  • Smart machine: Turing test

    • Logic; enumeration; artificial intelligence

  • Moore’s law: Increasing density


Communications phones

Communications: Phones

  • Landlines based

    • Telegraph (1844); Telephone (1876)

    • Extensive infrastructure

      • PBX/ PABX/ EPABX

      • Circuit switching

  • Wireless based

    • Mass media (Radio/ TV)

    • Mobile phone Generations

      • 1G: Analog Cellular phones (1981-90)

      • 2G: Digital cellular phones (1991-01) [GSM; CDMA; TDMA]

      • 3G: Digital data phones (2001-now) [UMTS; EVDO

      • 4G?: Faster data phones [LTE; WiMax;UMB]


Communication internet

Communication: Internet

  • Federal Network systems

    • ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    • NSFNET

  • University Consortiums

    • BITNET

  • Browser/ Network Protocols

    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 1971

    • Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/ IP)

    • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

    • Domain Name System (DNS) [Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers]


Communications ip based

Communications: IP based

  • Digital Infrastructure

    • Packet switching

  • Voice Over IP

  • Internet Protocol TV


Ip based services

IP based services


Ip based services1

IP based services

  • Podcasts; Really Simple Syndication (RSS)

  • Collective intelligence: blogs, wikis, twitter

  • Multimedia (Youtube)

  • Peer to Peer networks [Trading (ebay), Lending] (prosper.com)

  • Social networking(LinkedIn; Xanga)

    • Transaction-oriented communities

    • Interest-oriented communities

    • Fantasy-oriented communities

    • Relationship-oriented communities


Digital will replace analog

Digital will replace Analog

  • IP based TV will replace Cathode Ray tube TV

  • Digital Personal Communications Service (PCS) phones will replace Cell phones

  • Multipurpose Digital phones

    • VoIP

    • E-conferencing

    • Multimedia (Cellywood)

    • GPS

  • Data mining techniques

  • If anything can be digitized, it will


Gov 2 0

Gov 2.0


Virtual world simulations

Virtual World Simulations

  • Life imitating … (art, comic books,…)

  • 3D Internet

  • Video/ Electronic/ Virtual Gaming

    • Pachinko

    • Play money (QQ coins)

  • Second Life/ Active Worlds

    • Virtual currency (Linden)

    • Virtual real estate

    • Virtual persona

  • Uses

    • Libraries

    • Museums

    • Colleges and universities

    • The media


Virtual worlds

Virtual Worlds


Cloud computing

Cloud computing

  • Also, distributed/grid computing

    • Computing services are delivered over the Internet, on demand, from a remote location, rather than residing on one’s own desktop, laptop, mobile device, or even on an organization’s servers

  • Benefits

    • Rapid scalability and deployment capabilities

    • Decreased maintenance/upgrades

    • Improved economies of scale


Cloud computing1

Cloud computing


Communications infrastructure

Communications Infrastructure

  • Network

    • Telephone Modems [56.6 kbps]

    • Broadbands >200

      • Digital Subscriber Line (256 Kbps to 6 Mbps) [20 to 1 contention ratio]

      • Cable Modems (1 – 6 Mbps) [50 to 1 contention ratio]

      • T1/ T2 lines [10-100 Mbps]

  • Network infrastructure

    • Wired or Wireless


Wired communications

Wired communications

  • Fiber to the Home (FTTH)

    • Delivery of communications over optical fiber

    • About 1.2% of homes have FTTH connections.

    • Dallas, Jackson (TN), Sacramento


Broadband over power line

Broadband over Power Line

  • Power Line Communications (PLC), Power Line Telecommunications (PLT)

  • Manassas, VA deployed the nation's first citywide BPL system recently

  • The National Association for Amateur Radio opposes the idea due to interference with radio waves


The technology in e government

BPL


Wireless infrastructure

Wireless infrastructure

  • Licensed vs unlicensed frequency

  • Personal Area Networks (e.g.Bluetooth, Ultra Wide Band)

    • 2.4 Ghz; 720 kbps

  • Medium Range

    • Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)

      • Range upto 300’; 2.4 GHz

      • IEEE 802.11 standard

  • Long Range

    • WiMax (Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access)

      • Range upto 30 miles

        • IEEE 802.16 standard

  • Mesh Networks

  • Satellite


  • Wireless infrastructure1

    Wireless Infrastructure

    • Wireless is the future of broadband.

    • Electromagnetic radio waves is the next REAL ESTATE

      • FCC auctioning of 700 MHz band spectrum

    • Need for transmitters

      • Bluetooth, UWB; Wi-Fi; WiMax; Mesh

    • Hybrid

      • Telephone lines; Electrical lines (BPL); Optical Fibers (FTTH)


    Technology progress isps 2000

    Technology Progress: ISPs, 2000


    Technology progress isps 2004

    Technology Progress: ISPs, 2004


    Technology progress isps 2006

    Technology Progress: ISPs, 2006


    Municipal wi fi

    Municipal Wi-Fi


    Emerging technology trends

    Emerging technology trends


    The technology in e government

    RFID

    • RFID tags: Active; Passive; Semi-passive

    • RFID receivers

    • Electronic product codes

    • Uses:

      • Supply Chain Management

      • Asset (Inventory) Management

      • Maintenance of materiel


    Rfid cbp

    RFID: CBP


    Rfid verichip

    RFID: Verichip

    HTTP://WWW.SPYCHIPS.COM


    Rfid sensor devices

    RFID Sensor Devices

    • RFID tags (with EPC) will become cheap enough to tag objects & persons

    • Alternative: Smart cards

    • Are RFID tags SPY CHIPS?


    Location based service gis

    Location based service: GIS

    • Desktop GIS

      • Proprietary GIS software

      • Accessible to one person at a time

      • Developer = User

      • Steep learning curve

  • Web-GIS

    • Proprietary GIS software

    • Accessible over internet

    • Separation of developers and users

    • Flatter learning curve for users

  • Geospatial Web (Where 2.0?)

    • Tagging content and data with geographic metadata

    • Open access to GIS

    • GIS combined with Web 2.0 tools (mashups)

    • Multiple developers as well as users

  • Uses

    • Emergency management; Surveillance; Transit

    • Loopt; Google’s Latitude; Foursquare; Hot Potato; Whrrl; Gowalla


  • Gis virtual alabama

    GIS: Virtual Alabama


    Galileo

    GALILEO


    Galileo1

    GALILEO


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