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Chapter 3. The Growth of a Young Nation. Section 1. The Jeffersonian Era. John Adams vs Thomas Jefferson. Election of 1800. Adams was a Federalist Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican Jefferson beat Adams by 8 electoral votes, but tied with Aaron Burr

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

The Growth of a Young Nation


Section 1

Section 1

The Jeffersonian Era


John adams vs thomas jefferson

John Adams vs Thomas Jefferson


Election of 1800

Election of 1800

  • Adams was a Federalist

  • Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican

  • Jefferson beat Adams by 8 electoral votes, but tied with Aaron Burr

  • House re-votes 35 times in the next 6 days

  • Alexander Hamilton finally intervened because he HATED Burr. He convinces a few federalists to cast blank votes so Jefferson can win.

  • Burr becomes vice president, this seems silly so we pass the 12th amendment. Runner up no longer becomes vice president.


Jeffersonian republicanism

Jeffersonian Republicanism

  • People should control a simple government

  • Reduced size of army, halted expansion of the navy, and lowered expenses for government social functions.

  • Also went against Hamilton by eliminating internal taxes and reducing the influence of the Bank of the United States.

  • Took office in Washington D.C., next two presidents came from the South.


Midnight judges

Midnight Judges

  • At midnight Adams signed federalist judges in, papers weren’t delivered until Jefferson took office. Jefferson said appointments were invalid and Madison (the Secretary of State) refused to deliver the papers.

  • Marbury (one of the midnight judges) sues Madison.

  • Supreme Court says Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional and therefore Marbury will not receive his papers.

  • This establishes Judicial Review. The newly defined, super important, job of the Supreme Court.


Louisiana purchase

Louisiana Purchase

  • After the French and Indian War, France had to give Spain The Louisiana Territory (From Mississippi to Rocky Mountains).

  • In 1800 Napoleon convinces Spain to give this land back.

  • Napoleon plans to use it for a colonial empire he wants to set up in America.

  • Napoleon had to abandon this plan because of problems in Europe. So, he sells it to America for $15 million.

  • The purchase more than doubles the size of the United States.


Lewis and clark sacajawea

Lewis and Clark Sacajawea


Conundrum for jefferson

Conundrum for Jefferson

  • Remember, as a Democratic-Republican, he believes in a strict or loose interpretation of the Constitution?

  • STRICT

  • The Constitution does NOT say that he, as the president, can purchase new land for the country, therefore he CANNOT!!!

  • In order to better the country he must turn his back on his political ideals.


Causes of the war of 1812

Causes of The War of 1812

  • United States vs. Great Britain, Round 2

  • Although mad at French and British we focus on British because of impressment (they capture our ships and force our sailors into their navy).

  • Officials in British Canada were supplying weapons to Native Americans so they could fight American settlers.

  • Southern and Western “War Hawks” demand war.


Course of the war

Course of the War

  • Madison asks Congress to declare war on Great Britain in June of 1814.

  • Because of Jefferson’s military cuts we are ill-prepared to fight a war.

  • Britain was also occupied with Napoleon.

  • Biggest British victory: August of 1814, the British sack and burn Washington D.C.

  • Biggest American victory: January of 1815, the Americans under Andrew Jackson win at New Orleans

  • Ironically the Treaty of Ghent, an armistice, had already been declared on Christmas Eve of 1814, but news travels slowly across that big blue thing.


Consequences of the war

Consequences of the War

  • Led to the end of the Federalist Party because they mostly opposed the war

  • Encouraged American manufacturing because during the war Britain would not sale certain products to use and therefore we had to learn to make our own.

  • Confirmed to Great Britain and to other countries that the United States was indeed a free and independent nation.


Most interesting outcome of the war

Most interesting outcome of the war?

  • It gave us our national anthem written by Francis Scott Key and inspired by the defense of Fort McHenry on September 14, 1814.


Territory and boundaries

Territory and Boundaries

  • Northern border is 49th parallel from Michigan to the Rocky Mountains.

  • British and America agree to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory for ten years.

  • Adams convinced Spain to give us Florida.

  • Establishes western boundary of U.S. (follow Sabine, then straight up to Arkansas, follow Arkansas, then straight up to 42nd parallel and west to the ocean.


Monroe doctrine

Monroe Doctrine

  • Napoleon invades Spain and Portugal who have to give up their claims in the Americas to focus on fighting Napoleon. Once Napoleon is no longer a threat, they want their land claims back.

  • Russians are setting up trading posts in California which they claim is still part of Alaska.

  • Because of these threats, America must act. Monroe warns Europe to not interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere, (no new colonies and no attempts to overthrow new independent countries). The U.S. will not involve itself in Europe or in existing colonies.


Section 2

Section 2

The Age of Jackson


Northern industry

Northern Industry

  • Industrial Revolution takes off in the North

  • The geography makes it better for factories

  • Its economy was already based on trade and shipping, now they add manufacturing

  • Farmers in the North begin specializing in one crop, selling it, then using their money to buy what they needed from Northern factories.

  • Where does this leave the South?


Southern agriculture

Southern Agriculture

  • Geography lends itself to a plantation economy

  • Cotton Gin makes the cotton crop more profitable in the South, but requires more slave labor

  • Southern economy is tied to slavery

  • Between 1790 and 1820 slave population more than doubles from 700,000 to 1.5 million (meanwhile the Northern states were either outright abolishing it or phasing it out)


Nationalism vs sectionalism

Nationalism vs. Sectionalism

  • I am an American first and a Westerner or Utahan second.


Clay s american system

Clay’s American System

  • Plan to make America independent

    • Establish a protective tariff

    • Re-charter the National Bank for a unified currency

    • Sponsor the development of transportation systems

  • South could be the food and raw goods producer, North would buy their foods and raw goods, turn them into something else in their factories and South would buy the North’s manufactured goods. If it could be achieved we would not have to rely on another country and entangle our politics in theirs for the sake of money.


The missouri compromise

The Missouri Compromise

  • When Missouri applies for statehood the balance of power is upset, what to do now?

  • Maine is admitted as a free state, Missouri is admitted as a slave state

  • The rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. North of 36 30’ line banned slavery (except Missouri), South of line, slavery was legal


The 1824 election

The 1824 Election

  • John Quincy Adams (son of John Adams) beats Andrew Jackson

  • Many believed there was a conspiracy set up by Adams and Henry Clay who should be on opposite sides

  • Adams made Clay his Secretary of State which split the Democratic-Republican party.

  • Clay became the National Republican Party and Jackson became the Democratic Party

  • During Adams presidency voting requirements are eased, allowing more “common men” to vote


The 1828 election

The 1828 Election

  • Because of the easing up of voting restrictions three times more men were eligible to vote in 1828 than 1824

  • These new voters viewed Jackson as a “common man” like them and voted for him

  • Jackson wins


Spoils system

Spoils System

  • The belief that each new administration should fire everyone from the previous administration and replace them with their friends or political allies

  • As a result the best man does not always get the job and competent people are fired

  • Jackson felt this was fair however


Indian removal act

Indian Removal Act

  • There was a growing trend of removal treaties

  • States forcing the Natives in their boundaries to move west

  • The Cherokee tribe did not quietly go, instead they fought back by suing the state of Georgia

  • The Supreme Court declares that Georgia cannot regulate the Cherokee or invade Cherokee lands

  • A perceived victory turns into a tragedy when Jackson refuses to obey the Supreme Court


Trail of tears

Trail of Tears

  • Cherokee were rounded up and put in waiting camps for years

  • Fall of 1838 they were sent off 1,000 at a time to make the 800 mile journey on foot

  • As winter arrived more and more died on the journey (1/4) to “Indian Territory”


Nullification crisis

Nullification Crisis

  • Remember those protective tariffs as part of the American System? They go higher in 1824 and again in 1828

  • To Southerners the one in 1828 becomes known as the “Tariff of Abominations”

  • Because of this tariff not as many Americans were buying British stuff, so the British no longer wanted to buy American stuff (like cotton)…

  • The South was now required to buy more expensive stuff from the North than less expensive stuff from Britain


Nullification crisis cont

Nullification Crisis cont.

  • Calhoun decides that states must still be sovereign and declare acts of Congress unconstitutional (like the tariffs)

  • Congress debates this for awhile, then in 1832 raises tariffs again

  • South Carolina declares tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void and threatened secession if customs officials tried to collect the tax

  • Jackson wants to pass the Force Bill to use the military to collect the tax from naughty states

  • Clay steps in again with a compromise to lower tariffs over the next ten years and pass the Force Bill


Jackson s bank war

Jackson’s Bank War

  • Jackson felt the Second Bank of the United States only helped the wealthy and not common people so he did what he could to destroy it

  • Jackson won reelection in 1832

  • Started withdrawing all government funds from the National Bank and placing them in state “pet banks” that were loyal to the Democratic Party

  • The National Bank then became just another bank

  • Although Jackson won, he lost a lot of support and his opponents created the Whig party


Panic of 1837

Panic of 1837

  • Van Buren is now president and suffers consequences of Jackson’s Bank War

  • Pet banks printed more paper currency than they had gold and silver to back up

  • Bank runs cause the banks to close, life savings to disappear, businesses to die and 1/3 of the population out of work


Harrison and tyler

Harrison and Tyler

  • Although Harrison is a Whig, he dies 30 days into his term because of pneumonia that he got from walking to his inaugural address

  • Tyler, the VP, now becomes president and is not so much a Whig


Section 3

Section 3

Manifest Destiny


Manifest destiny

Manifest Destiny

  • The belief that it is our God-given right to spread from sea to shining sea

  • Leads to exploring the west and taking lands from Mexico and the Natives


Trails west

Trails West

  • Santa Fe Trail: 780 miles, uses old Native trails from Independence to Santa Fe, mostly used for trade with Mexicans and Natives, first travel separately, then in groups, then separate again

  • Oregon Trail: Independence to Oregon City blazed by missionaries, followed by adventurers, settlers and fur trappers

  • Mormon Migration: Mostly follows Oregon Trail, escaping religious persecution, led by Brigham Young after original leader (Joseph Smith) was murdered


Mexican independence

Mexican Independence

  • Mexico wins independence from Spain in 1821

  • Gains control of the Spanish missions and opens up the surrounding land to government officials and then opens up Texas to Americans to help secure the land

  • Because of invitation to Americans, they soon outnumber the Tejanos

  • Stephen Austin even sets up a whole “perfect” society in Texas


Texas revolution

Texas Revolution

  • Tension grew between Anglos and Tejanos over language, slavery, religion…

  • Austin goes to President Santa Anna and asks for greater autonomy in Texas, he is then arrested for inciting a rebellion

  • Austin is let go and then really does start a rebellion, Santa Anna sends out troops that meet Austin’s men


Remember the alamo

Remember the Alamo

  • Rebels station themselves in the Alamo to prevent Santa Anna from moving farther north

  • Santa Anna attacks the fort while Texans officially declare their independence and create a constitution almost identical to the U.S.’s

  • After 13 days the Mexicans scaled the walls and killed everyone inside, losing hundreds of their own in the battle

  • Then Santa Anna executes 300 rebels which spreads the spirit of rebellion under the slogan “Remember the Alamo”

  • 6 weeks later rebels surprise the Mexicans and kill 630 of them in 18 minutes, then force Santa Anna to sign the Treaty of Velasco granting Texas its independence.

  • Texas then wants to be annexed by the United States (Because of slavery Southerners agree, Northerners do not want to risk war with Mexico.)

  • James K. Polk wins the next election which is a clear cry for annexation


War with mexico

War with Mexico

  • U.S. annexed Texas and Mexico is mad

  • There is a border dispute between Texas and Mexico, Polk wants Texas, New Mexico and California so he supports Texas

  • Mexico refuses to speak with a negotiator sent by Polk

  • This angers Polk and he sends troops into the disputed area and claims it

  • In a skirmish Mexico kills some of the soldiers and Polk asks Congress for war

  • Troops sent to New Mexico are greeted by rich Mexicans who want to join the U.S.

  • Americans in California declared their independence from Mexico so when troops arrived California soon fell

  • After 1 year of fighting Mexico gave up and signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: border is Rio Grande and we get California and New Mexico too, we also agree to pay them $15 million, and $10 million later for a small chunk of land called the Gadsden Purchase


Gold rush

Gold Rush

  • January 24, 1848 gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill in California

  • Everyone in California went gold crazy and the next year saw a pouring in of people from the East who also wanted to strike it rich

  • California’s population explodes

  • And Horace Greely says “Go West, Young Man”


Section 4

Section 4

The Market Revolution


Market revolution

Market Revolution

  • First half of the 19th century where people increasingly bought and sold more goods rather than made their own


U s market expands

U.S. Market Expands

  • 1840-1850 saw more growth than 1800-1840

  • Free Enterprise: the freedom of private business to operate competitively for profit with little government regulation

  • Entrepreneurs: business men who invest their own money in new industries. Kind of like gambling


Inventions and improvements

Inventions and Improvements

  • Samuel Morse-telegraph, sends code by wire to turn into messages

  • Robert Fulton-steam engine, creates a need for canals and helps with railroads


The market revolution transforms the nation

The Market Revolution Transforms the Nation

  • 14% have manufacturing jobs, most still live in rural areas

  • They make products better and quicker than ever and new transportation allows these goods to be shipped all over the country

  • Transportation and Communication make regions more interdependent, steam boats on the Mississippi link North and South; Erie Canal, railroads and telegraph link East to West

  • Northeast industrializes more so farmers head to the Midwest: use new tools like steel plow and reaper


Changing workplace

Changing Workplace

  • Moving production from home to factory split families, created new communities and changed relationship between employer and employee

  • Jobs no longer took skill, just factories and common workers

  • Lowell, Massachusetts: Girls flock to work at the factories which at first were nice, but turn into cramped, dark, dank, dangerous place to work long hours.


Strikes

Strikes

  • 800 Lowell Mill girls strike, most are pressured to return after the leader is fired

  • Two years later they strike again with the same result

  • Workers mostly strike for higher pay, some for shorter hours

  • Ineffective because they were easily replaced with immigrants


Immigration

Immigration

  • 1845-1854 nearly 3 million new immigrants

  • Mostly from Ireland because of the Great Potato Famine

  • Heavily persecuted because of religion and poverty


National trades union

National Trades’ Union

  • People who do the same job across various industries join together

  • At first they don’t have much success because courts were trying to claim that striking was illegal

  • In Commonwealth v. Hunt Massachusetts Supreme Court guarantees a worker’s right to strike


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