The Bulgarian case
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The Bulgarian case. Ricard Zapata Barrero, GRITIM, Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona. ROBERT SCHUMAN CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES. Bulgaria diversity concept. Def. of diversity: ethnic, religious and cultural

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The Bulgarian case

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The bulgarian case

The Bulgarian case

Ricard Zapata Barrero,

GRITIM, Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Barcelona

ROBERT SCHUMAN CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES


The bulgarian case

Bulgaria diversity concept

  • Def. of diversity: ethnic, religious and cultural

  • How each country describes and categorizes diversity of origin? (p. 10) origin? Table 1

  • Origin/categories of diversity

  • Interesting analytic distinction: old/new diversities (OLD: Turks, Roma, Pomaks, Jews, Armenians, and NEW: Immigrants origin).

  • What is interesting is the role the NEW is playing to make visible the OLD, and also the interaction between OLD and NEW)

ROBERT SCHUMAN CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES


Bulgaria profile

Bulgaria Profile

  • Profile of immigrants: 45% have permanent status -16% long-term residence, 11% refugees, 4 % short-term, 5% of dual citizenship,6% irregulars, 13% we don’t know…

  • Gendered and Urban (33% in Sofia and other Bulgarian cities=

  • Hight level education: 12% Bulgarian have higher education, 21% of immigrants…


Key issues

Key-issues

  • History of Bulgaria through tolerance: traditionally considered as “welcome and tolerant State” (receive Jews from Russian pogroms and after from Germany, Armenians from Turks)

  • “Even the fall of the communist regime and the creation of the democratic opposition occurred under the sign of protection of the minority rights and equality of all religions” (p. 19).

  • …But..the fact is …Democracy and Diversity: Link diversity recognition and democratization of Bulgaria

  • Socialist period and marginalization of minorities

  • Interesting: EU incorporation of Bulgaria (2007) effects: no diaspora, but entrance of 8 000 (half from Russia and other former Soviet Union and Macedonia)..the push factor was: to become European!

ROBERT SCHUMAN CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES


Nation and state

Nation and State

  • Debate on the link between Nation-building and State-building, and Bulgarian unification process through the orthodox Christian and bulgarian-speaking majority (link language and Religion).

  • Definition nation: territorial dimension of nation: hybrid from ethnic nationalism (German) and civic nationalism (French)

  • National identity building within or outside Europe? (6)—ours / others logic are build in the framework that others are also non-europeans.

ROBERT SCHUMAN CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES


Citizenship policies

Citizenship policies

  • “Janus Head”: Bulgaria two “belonging senses” (Russian-Slavic identity, and European), and linked to right (European)/left (Russian) cleavage (6)

  • Citizenship in Bulgaria (8): Bulgarian diaspora as a tool/goal of citizenship policies (9)

  • Bulgarian government view: ethnic terms, rather than civic and multicultural terms

  • Citizenship policies: giving nationality and citizenship to bulgarian diaspora as a strategy against diversity dynamic in Bulgaria: very interesting last paragraph (p. 9)

ROBERT SCHUMAN CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES


Indicators

Indicators

  • Taking the description from p. 18, indicators/criteria of tolerance

  • Link between State and Nation: no longer exists in Bulgaria?

  • Discrimination in school and Institutional discrimination in general

  • Public opinion and Media

  • Anti-immigrant and xenophobic political parties

  • Restrictive/pro-active policies

  • Reaction to campaigns

  • Increasing anti-islamic sentiments, as non-like the others

  • NGOs actions and discourses

ROBERT SCHUMAN CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES


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