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Structure of plants l.jpg

Slide 1

Structure of

Plants


A functions of roots l.jpg
A. Functions of Roots

Slide 2

  • Anchor & support plant in the ground

  • Absorb water & minerals

  • Hold soil in place

Fibrous Roots

Root Hairs


B root types l.jpg
B. Root Types

Slide 3

Tap Root

1. Fibrous Roots:branching roots hold soil in place to prevent soil erosion

Ex. Grasses

2. Tap Roots –larger central root reaches deep water sources underground

Ex. Trees, Carrots, & Dandelions


C the structure of a root l.jpg
C. The Structure of a Root

Slide 4

Root Hairs

  • Root Hairs: increase surface area for water & mineral absorption

  • Meristem: region where new cells are produced

  • Root Cap: protects tip of growing root

Phloem

Xylem

Meristem

Root Cap


A functions of stems l.jpg
A. Functions of Stems

Slide 5

  • Support system for plant body

  • Transport system carries water & nutrients

  • Holds leaves & branches upright

Looking at the picture to the left:

What years had the most rain?

What years experienced the worst drought?

Each light and dark tree ring equals one year of annual growth. Light rings for fast spring growth, dark for slow summer growth.

Smaller rings tell of past droughts that have occurred.


A functions of leaves l.jpg
A. Functions of Leaves

Slide # 6

  • Main photosynthetic organ

  • Broad, flat surface increases surface area for light absorption

  • Have systems to prevent water loss

    • Stomata open in day but close at night or when hot to conserve water

    • waxy cuticle on surface

  • System of gas exchange

    • Allow CO2 in and O2 out of leaf

Elephant Ear Plant


B leaf structures l.jpg
B. Leaf Structures

Slide # 7

Leaf Cross-Section

Cuticle

  • Cuticle: waxy layer; covers upper surface

    • Protects leaf against water loss

  • Veins: transports water, nutrients and food

    • Made of xylem and phloem

  • Mesophyll: contains cells that perform photosynthesis

    b/c they contain Chloroplasts.

Veins

Mesophyll

Stoma

(Opening)

2GuardCells

Surround

each

Stoma

Stoma- singular

Stomata-plural


Slide8 l.jpg

More Plant Parts…

Slide # 8

  • Guard cells:

    • cells that open and close the stoma

  • Stomata: openings in leaf’s surface; when open:

    • GAS EXCHANGE: Allows CO2 in & O2 out of leaf

    • TRANSPIRATION: Allows excess H2O out of leaf

Guard Cells

Stoma


Function of stomata l.jpg
Function of Stomata

What goes out?

O2

H2O

What goes in?

CO2

Slide # 9

  • What process involves using CO2 andH2O releasing O2 as a waste product?

  • Photosynthesis

  • What is the plant using this process to make?

  • Carbohydrates-glucose

  • If the plant needs water for photosynthesis, why is water coming out of the stoma?

Guard Cells

Guard Cells

Stoma Closed

Stoma Open

Stoma


Function of guard cells l.jpg
Function of Guard Cells

Slide # 10

  • These stomata (leaf openings) naturally allow water to evaporate out.

  • Why would the plant close stomata with guard cells?

  • Prevent excess water loss through transpiration. (conserve water)

  • So what is the point of having stomata?

  • Allow gas exchange for photosynthesis

Guard Cells

Guard Cells

Stoma Closed

Stoma Open


C plants find a use for transpiration l.jpg
C. Plants find a use for Transpiration

Slide # 11

  • Transpiration: loss

  • of excess water from plant leaves

  • 2. Significance:

  • Transpiration causes enough pressure to help pull water (& required nutrients) up stem from roots.

  • As part of the water cycle, trees transpire water back into the atmosphere.

  • Transpiration provides much of the daily rain in rainforest.

B

A

A average size maple tree can transpire 200 liters of water per hour during the summer.

Transpiration is the #1 driving force for pulling water up stems from roots.


Structure of a flower l.jpg

Stamen

Pistil

Stigma

Anther

Style

Filament

Ovary

Petal

Ovule

Sepal

Structure of a Flower

Slide # 12

1.Pistil:female reproductive structure

  • Stigma: sticky tip; traps pollen

  • Style: slender tube; transports pollen from stigma to ovary

  • Ovary: contains ovules;ovary develops into fruit

  • Ovule: contains egg cell which develops into a seed when fertilized


Structure of a flower13 l.jpg

Stamen

Pistil

Stigma

Anther

Style

Filament

Ovary

Petal

Ovule

Sepal

Structure of a Flower

Slide # 13

  • Stamen: male reproductive structure

    • Filament: thin stalk; supports anther

    • Anther: knob-like structure; produces pollen

    • Pollen: contains microscopic cells that become sperm cells


Structure of a flower14 l.jpg

Stamen

Pistil

Stigma

Anther

Style

Filament

Ovary

Petal

Ovule

Sepal

Structure of a Flower

Slide # 14

  • Sepals: encloses & protects flower before it blooms

  • Petals: usually colorful & scented; attracts pollinators


Cross pollination l.jpg
Cross Pollination

Slide # 15

  • How does pollination happen?

  • Pollen from an anther is caught by the stigma, travels through style to the ovules in the ovary.

  • What is the result of pollination?

  • A Fruit: An ovary containing seeds.


Chapter 25 l.jpg

Slide # 16

Chapter 25

Plant

Responses

and

Adaptations


Hormone action on plants l.jpg
Hormone Action on Plants

Hormone-producing

cells

Slide #17

  • A. Plant cells can produce hormones: which are chemical messengers that travel throughout the plant causing other cells called target cells to respond.

  • B. In plants, hormones control:

    • Plant growth & development

    • Plant responses to environment

Movement

of hormone

Target

cells

Cells in one blooming flower signals other blooms using hormones to open.


C plant cells will send signals to one another to tell them l.jpg
C. Plant cells will send signals to one another to tell them:

Slide # 18

  • When trees to drop their leaves.

  • When to start new growth.

  • When to cause fruit to ripen.

  • When to cause flowers to bloom.

  • When to cause seeds to sprout.

Leaf Drop

Cactus

Blooming

Fruit

Ripening

Tree Budding

Sprouting

Corn Seeds


D ethylene causes fruit to ripen l.jpg
D. Ethylene causes Fruit to Ripen

Slide # 19

  • Fruit tissues release a small amount of ethlyene

  • Causes fruits to ripen.

  • As fruit become ripe, they produce more and more ethlyene, accelerating the ripening process.

Ethylene released by apples and tomatoes causes fruit to age quickly.


Plant tropisms l.jpg
Plant Tropisms

Slide # 20

1. Tropism: the way a plant grows in response to stimuli in the environment.

  • Phototropism: growth response to light

    -Plants bend towards light

  • Geotrophism: growth response to gravity

    -plant roots grow down with gravity, shoots (stems) grow up against gravity and out of the soil.

  • Thigmotropism: growth response to touch

    -vines grow up around trees, venus flytrap closeswhen leaves are touched


Slide21 l.jpg

Slide # 21

What type of tropism is shown in these pictures?

Phototropism

Geotropism

Thigmotrophism

Thigmotrophism

Geotropism

Phototropism


Slide22 l.jpg

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