Regulation
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Regulation. Hox Genes. Any of the developmental control genes. Hox Gene Mutation. Mutations. Def. A change in genetic material where normal genes are changed or damaged. Mutations happen all the time!. Polymerase makes 120,000 mistakes per cell division >1% mistakes

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Regulation

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Regulation

Regulation


Hox genes

Hox Genes

  • Any of the developmental control genes


Hox gene mutation

Hox Gene Mutation


Mutations

Mutations


Regulation

Def.

  • A change in genetic material where normal genes are changed or damaged.


Mutations happen all the time

Mutations happen all the time!

  • Polymerase makes 120,000 mistakes per cell division

  • >1% mistakes

  • Most of these mistakes are corrected

  • Proof-reading and repair enzymes fix most of these problems


Three main categories

Three Main Categories

  • Single Gene

  • Multifactorial Genes

  • Chromosomal


Method mutations

Method mutations

  • Point mutation

    • Only a few bases are changed

    • May include

      • Subsitution

    • Affects only on amino acid

  • Frameshift Mutation

    • May include

      • Deletion

      • Substution

    • Affect whole gene


Frameshifts

Frameshifts

  • All the sad boy had for him big dog was bad ham and one old pig leg.

  • All the saboyhadforhisbigdogwasbadhamando neo ldpigleg.


Chromosomal mutations

Chromosomal Mutations

  • Changes to structure of chromosomes


Dominance in mutation

Dominance in Mutation

  • Point, Frameshift, and Chromosomal mutation can be recessive or dominant.


Non disjunction

Non-disjunction

  • Def- The failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis or mitosis

  • Result in individuals with wrong number of chromosomes


Somatic vs germ line mutations

Somatic vs. Germ line mutations

  • Somatic

    • Occurs in a body cell

    • Only effects the area where the mutation happened

    • Cannot by passed on to offspring

    • Example: Skin Cancer

  • Germline

    • Occurs in the reproductive cells of the parent

    • Is passed on to offspring

    • Affects every cell in the offspring

    • Example : Down’s Syndrome


Are mutations good or bad

Are mutations good or bad?


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