Nitrogen management for enhanced protein source and timing of n applications in spring wheat
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Nitrogen Management for Enhanced Protein: Source and Timing of N Applications in Spring Wheat. C.A. Grant 1 , C.D. Rawluk 1 , R.M. McKenzie 2 , D.N. Flaten 3 and A.M. Johnston 4

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Nitrogen Management for Enhanced Protein: Source and Timing of N Applications in Spring Wheat

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Nitrogen management for enhanced protein source and timing of n applications in spring wheat

Nitrogen Management for Enhanced Protein: Source and Timing of N Applications in Spring Wheat

C.A. Grant1, C.D. Rawluk1, R.M. McKenzie2, D.N. Flaten3 and A.M. Johnston4

1AAFC Brandon Research Centre, 2Alberta Agriculture, 3University of Manitoba, 4Potash and Phosphate Institute


Nitrogen management for enhanced protein source and timing of n applications in spring wheat

Factors Affecting Protein Content of Wheat

Crop Genetics

weather

Grain yield

Agronomy

Seeding Date

N Movement

to grain

N uptake

Soil

Characteristics

N supply and

release


Effect of n on grain yield and protein concentration

Effect of N on grain yield and protein concentration


Balance crop demand with nitrogen supply

Balance Crop Demand with Nitrogen Supply

Nitrogen Supply

Crop Demand

In-crop N where crop demand exceeds soil supply


In crop n management for protein

In-Crop N Management For Protein

  • Is the extra N needed?

  • Source?

    • Urea, UAN, ammonium nitrate

  • Timing?

    • Seeding, tillering , boot, anthesis

  • Placement?

    • Foliar, soil-applied


Methodology

Methodology

  • Field studies from 1997-2000 at several sites in Black Soil Zone of Canadian prairies

  • Hard red spring wheat

  • 75 kg N ha-1 applied at seeding compared to 60 kg N ha-1 applied at seeding plus 15 kg N ha-1 as in-crop application


Nitrogen source and timing effects on wheat protein content

Nitrogen source and timing effects on wheat protein content


Change in protein content by 15 kg n per ha as an at boot as compared to at seeding

Change in protein content by 15 kg N per ha as AN at boot as compared to at seeding


Predicting the need for in crop n

Predicting the need for in-crop N

  • Good growing conditions

    • yield potential exceeds the target yield

  • Visual N deficiency symptoms

  • Tissue N levels

  • Use of SPAD meter

    • Chlorophyll meter

    • Assesses “greeness”


Protein content and leaf n content as related to spad meter readings

Protein Content and Leaf N Content as Related to Spad Meter Readings

Melfort, 1999


Nitrogen source and timing effects on increase in wheat protein content above n at seeding

Nitrogen source and timing effects on increase in wheat protein content above N at seeding


Nitrogen source and timing effects on increase in wheat protein content above n at seeding1

Nitrogen source and timing effects on increase in wheat protein content above N at seeding


Nitrogen source and timing effects on increase in wheat protein content above n at seeding2

Nitrogen source and timing effects on increase in wheat protein content above N at seeding

Early Seeding Date


Nitrogen source and timing effects on increase in wheat protein content above n at seeding3

Nitrogen source and timing effects on increase in wheat protein content above N at seeding

Late Seeding Date


Uptake of soil and foliar applied urea by wheat in two growth chamber studies

Uptake of Soil- and Foliar-Applied Urea by Wheat in two Growth Chamber Studies

50 ppm base N


Foliar application of n

Under dry conditions, late N applications to soil may be unavailable

Foliar applications may allow N uptake by plant

greater advantage in drier areas?

Foliar Application of N


Summary

Summary

  • Benefit of in-crop N was variable

    • often only minor benefit over application of N at seeding

    • consider cost of extra operation

  • Ammonium nitrate >urea >UAN in increasing protein content

    • volatilization losses from urea

    • little actual foliar uptake

  • UAN may be beneficial with late application under dry conditions


The end

The End

Thank you to Western Grains Research Foundation, ARDI, Westco, Envirotest Laboratories, Simplot and MII for their support of this research


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