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History and Development of the English Language. Language System and Discourse Diachronic Perspective. Basic Concepts. Material Culture vs. Non-Material Culture Language as a “Tool” Language vs. Dialect Diachronic vs. Synchronic views Language System vs. Language Discourse

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history and development of the english language

History and Development of the English Language

Language System and Discourse Diachronic Perspective

basic concepts
Basic Concepts
  • Material Culture vs. Non-Material Culture
  • Language as a “Tool”
  • Language vs. Dialect
  • Diachronic vs. Synchronic views
  • Language System vs. Language Discourse
  • Synthetic vs. Analytic
system levels units rules
Syntactic

Lexical

Morphological

Phonological

Grammatical Rules

Content Words

Form Words – Affixes

Sounds and Letters

SYSTEM – Levels, Units, Rules
ethnic groups
Ethnic Groups
  • Celts (Founders of Europe)
  • Romans (Roman Empire)
  • Angles, Saxons and Jutes (West Germanic)
  • Danes (North Germanic, Viking Age)
  • Normans (French-Norman)
the celtic element the britons
The Celtic Element – the Britons
  • English took practically nothing from the old Celtic language.
  • Some Common Words
  • Some Names of places
some common words of celtic origin
Some Common Words of Celtic Origin
  • British words ass, brock, bannock, bin
  • From Welsh: druid, flannel, gull, bard
  • From Scotch Gaelic: cairn, clan, plaid, whisky
  • From Irish: brogue, shamrock, galore
some celtic names of places
Some Celtic Names of Places
  • Avon = river
  • Esk, Ex, Usk, Ouse, Aire = water
  • The Don and the Doune
  • Stour, Tees, Trent, Wye and Wey
  • are Celtic names. The Celtic dun (= a protected place) can be seen in Dundee, Dunbar, and in the old name for Edinburgh, Dunedin; Kill (= a church) in Kildare, Kilkenny; -combe (cwm) (= a hollow) in Ilfracombe, Combe Martin; caer ( = a castle) in Caerleon, Carliste, Cardiff; and -llan (= holy) in Llangollen, Llandudno. The names London, Dover, York, Glasgow are British, and so is the first part of Dorchester, Gloucester, Manchester, Winchester, Salisbury, to which has been added he old English ceaster (from the Latin castra = a camp)or –burgh (= a fort).
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