Forecasting the weather
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Forecasting the Weather. Weather. Weather: The daily conditions of a particular area: temp, rain, pressure, wind, etc. Climate: the measure of weather over a very long period of time—at least 100 years Meteorology- the science of studying weather. 2. What is a weather forecast?.

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Forecasting the Weather

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Forecasting the Weather


Weather

  • Weather: The daily conditions of a particular area: temp, rain, pressure, wind, etc.

  • Climate: the measure of weather over a very long period of time—at least 100 years

  • Meteorology- the science of studying weather

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What is a weather forecast?

  • Forecast: A prediction of weather over the next 5-10 days.


What is a meteorologist?

  • Meteorologist: A person who observes the atmosphere, collects data, and makes predictions—forecasts—based on the data.

  • Meteorologist = weather person

  • You know them as weathermen and weatherwomen.


What do meteorologists measure?

  • Air pressure

  • Humidity

  • Precipitation

  • Temperature

  • Wind speed

  • Wind direction


Weather balloonsPictures courtesy of http://www.srh.noaa.gov/epz/kids/balloon.shtml:


Weather Instruments

Thermometer

Doppler Radar

Anemometer

Barometer

Weather Satellite

Wind Sock

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Weather Balloons

  • Weather balloons: Carry equipment as high as 30 km above the Earth’s surface

  • Measure temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, & direction


Thermometer

  • Thermometer: Used to measure:

    • air temperature


Barometer

  • Barometer: Used to measure air pressure


Psychrometer

An instrument used for measuring the water vapor content of the atmosphere; a type of hygrometer.


Anemometer

  • Used to measure wind speed


Wind Sock

  • Used to measure wind direction


Wind Vane/Weather Vane

  • Used to measure wind direction


Radar

  • Used to find location, movement, kind & amount of precipitation


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Weather Satellite

  • Orbit the Earth & send information back to Earth; used to track storms, wind speed, humidity, & temperature @ different altitudes


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Collecting & Analyzing Weather Data

  • 2 groups who gather information:

    • National Weather Service (NWS)

    • NOAA (National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration)


NWS

  • Produce maps based on information gathered from over 1,000 weather stations nationwide


Station Model

  • A small circle that shows the location of a weather station

  • Surrounding the small circle is a set of symbols & numbers that represent weather data


Example of a Station Model


Weather Map Symbols

High Pressure

Clear Weather

Cold Front

Warm Front

Low Pressure

Cloudy Weather

Occluded Front

Isobars:

Show equal

Lines of

Pressure.

Stationary Front

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Cold Front

  • Represented by triangles on a line


Warm Front

  • Represented by half-circles on a line:


High Pressure

  • Usually brings clear, sunny weather


Low Pressure

  • Bring rainy weather


Isobars

  • Lines that connect points of equal pressure on a weather map


ISOBARS- Certain weather maps allow us to view High and Low pressure systems that control the weather. An isobar is a line connecting locations of equal barometric pressure. Isobar maps show where pressures are relatively high and low, and show us where pressure changes are gradual or dramatic over a distance.

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