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PROBABILITY in the new curriculum

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PROBABILITY in the new curriculum

AMA Statistics Day

1 September 2007

Louise Addison

http://events.stanford.edu/events/86/8619/

- What topic is this from?
- Where have I seen it before?
- What does it mean?
- What would a question look like?
- Is it Achieve / Merit / Excellence level?
- Could I draw a picture of it?
- What connections can I make?
- Do I need to find out more?

What do you think…

P(X) = 0

Probability of Event X is 0

Pig Flying…

Event X is impossible

P(X’) = 1

If X = A B then A and B are mutually exclusive

0 is the probability of Lotto rounded to 6 d.p.

Algebra?!

- Link

- Algebra
- Geometry
- Graphs

- Number
- Probability
- Trigonometry

- Put these topics in order from best done to worst done in Level One in 2006:

- Sort the probability misconceptions cards into groups…

- I’ve spun an unbiased coin 3 times and got 3 tails. It is more likely to be heads than tails if I spin it again.

- Waikato plays netball against Auckland and can win, draw or lose. Therefore the probability Auckland will win is 1/3.

- There are 3 red beads and 5 blue beads in a box. I pick a bead at random. The probability that it is red is 3/5.

- I roll two dice and add the results. The probability of getting a total of 6 is 1/12 because there are 12 different possibilities and 6 is one of them.

- There are more black balls in box A than in box B. If you choose 1 ball from each box you are more likely to choose a black ball from A than from B.

B

A

- Tomorrow it will either rain or not rain, so the probability that it will rain is 0.5.

- Mr Brown is to have an operation. 90% of the people who have this operation make a complete recovery. There is a 90% chance that Mr Brown will make a complete recovery if he has this operation.

- If six fair dice are thrown at the same time, I am less likely to get 1,1,1,1,1,1 than 1,2,3,4,5,6.

- It is harder to throw a six than a three with a die.

- Each spinner has two sections, one black and one white. The probability of getting black is 50% for each spinner

- I flip two coins. The probability of getting heads and tails is 1/3 because I can get Head and Heads, Heads and Tails or Tails and Tails.

- John buys 2 raffle tickets. If he chooses two tickets from different places in the book he is more likely to win than if he chooses the first two tickets.

13

- 13 is an unlucky number so you are less likely to win a raffle with ticket number 13 than with a different number.

- It is not worth buying a lotto ticket with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 on it as this is less likely to occur than other combinations.

- My granddad smoked 20 cigarettes a day for 60 years and lived to be 90, so smoking can’t be bad for you.

- I have thrown an unbiased dice 12 times and not yet got a 6. The probability of getting a six on my next throw is more than 1/6.

All events are equally likely.

Some events are less / more likely than others

(Representative Bias - 123456)

Later events may be affected by or compensate for earlier ones.

(Recency Bias - BBBBBG)

When determining probability from statistical data, sample size is irrelevant.

Results of games of skill are unaffected by the nature of the participants.

Lucky/Unlucky numbers, etc. can influence random events.

In random events involving selection, results are dependent on numbers rather than ratios.

If events are random then the results of a series of independent events are equally likely, e.g. Heads Heads (HH) is as likely as Heads Tails (HT).

When considering spinners, probability is determined by number of sections rather than size of angles.

- Investigating situations involving chance (L1-5)
- Exploring possible outcomes (L1-3)
- Acknowledging uncertainty (L2-3)
- Comparing experimental results with expectations (L3-4), with theoretical results (L5)
- Acknowledging variation (L3-5)
- Acknowledging independence (L4-5)
- Using fractions and percentages (L4-5) and ratios (L5)
- Comparing population parameters with those of sample (L6)

- Investigating situations involving chance (L1 - 5)
- Exploring possible outcomes (L1-3)
- Acknowledging uncertainty (L2 - 3)
- Comparing experimental results with expectations (L3-4), with theoretical results (L5).
- Acknowledging variation (L3 - 5)
- Acknowledging independence (L4 - 5)
- Using fractions and percentages (L4-5) and ratios (L5)
- Comparing population parameters with those of sample (L6)

- Investigating situations involving chance (L1 - 5)
- Exploring possible outcomes (L1-3)
- Acknowledging uncertainty (L2 - 3)
- Comparing experimental results with expectations (L3-4), with theoretical results (L5).
- Acknowledging variation (L3 - 5)
- Acknowledging independence (L4 - 5)
- Using fractions and percentages (L4-5) and ratios (L5)
- Comparing population parameters with those of sample (L6)

- Investigating situations involving chance (L1 - 5)
- Exploring possible outcomes (L1-3)
- Acknowledging uncertainty (L2 - 3)
- Comparing experimental results with expectations (L3-4), with theoretical results (L5).
- Acknowledging variation (L3 - 5)
- Acknowledging independence (L4 - 5)
- Using fractions and percentages (L4-5) and ratios (L5)
- Comparing population parameters with those of sample (L6)

- Power point teaching tool

- Spreadsheet

- Rock Paper Scissors
- Murphy’s Law

- Power point

- I graduated from Douglass College without distinction. I was in the top 98% of my class and damn glad to be there. I slept in the library and daydreamed my way through history lecture. I failed math twice, never fully grasping probability theory. I mean, first off, who cares if you pick a black ball or a white ball out of the bag? And second, if you're bent over about the color, don't leave it to chance. Look in the damn bag and pick the color you want.
- Plum, StephanieHard Eight

- "In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice. But, in practice, there is."
- - Jan L.A. van de Snepscheut

- Always be a little improbable.
- Oscar Wilde