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X— 射线衍射分析基础及应用 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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X— 射线衍射分析基础及应用. 主要参考书. 1. 藤凤恩, X 射线结构分析与材料性能表征,科学出版社, 1997 。 2. 张建中,晶体的射线衍射基础,南京大学出版社, 1992 。 3. 黄胜涛,固体 X 射线学,高等教育出版社, 1990 。 4. 周玉,材料分析测试技术,哈尔滨工业大学出版社, 1998 。 5. 梁栋材, X 射线晶体学基础,科学出版社, 1991 。 6. 肖序刚,晶体结构几何理论,高等教育出版社, 1993 。 7. 李树棠, X 射线衍射实验方法,冶金工业出版社, 1993 。

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X— 射线衍射分析基础及应用

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X


1. X1997

2. 1992

3. X1990

4. 1998

5. X1991

6. 1993

7. X1993

8. , 2000

9. 2003


X

1.1 X1.2 XX1.3 X


X1895X

X


1.1 X

X


XXX110mm2Kratky212 mm22.7KWXX


X3614X611mm20.110 mm2X90


1.2 XX

X

X10310nm0.050.25nm


X

h 6.62510-34Js-1

Xs-1

cX 2.998108ms-1

(nm)


X IX

1.X

XX

X


X

1Xm0

2X m0

3


2.X

K20IXXX


X

X

X


KX0.63K0.71KKK1K20.004K1 K221KK51

17XKXK


1.3 X

X

X


X

XX

XI0Ix

I=I0e-lx

lXXZXl

l=m

mZX

I=I0e-mx


XXZ<40Z1Z>40Z2CuNiMoZr


X

XGADDSCCDIP

X

X


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4


2.1


2.2

1912X



(: a, b, c; ,, ,

c

a

b


  • 21 abcabc abc


CTHROMA



1PP

2 CC

3II

4FF


Bravais

1848


32

32


230

230


2.3

MillerW.H.

1

2


2212311/21/36632632


hkl z0


2.4

dhkld




X

3.1 3.2 3.3


3.1

  • 2dsin=n


1

XXXXdX


2

  • X

  • sin1 n/2d=sin1 ,n2d,n1n=02d

  • Xd/2,X


3

  • nd2dhklsin/n =,dHKLdhkl/n

  • 2 dHKLsin=

  • ndHKLhklnhkldHKLdhkl/n


  • dHKLHKLH=nhK=nkL=nl


4

  • dd


3.2

  • 1921Ewald,P.P


  • abcabc

  • ab= ac=ba=bc=ca=cb=0

  • aa=bb=cc=1

  • abc


  • abcabca100b010c001

  • abc

  • aa

  • bb

  • cc


  • ccOP001OP=ccos=d001 acos=d100,bcos=d010

  • a*a, a*=1/a

  • b*b b*=1/b

  • c*c c*=1/c


  • V=abc,:V= abc=1/abc=1/VVV1


  • r

  • r=Ha+Kb+Lc

  • HKL


3.3

  • X, Ewald


X

  • 4.1 4.2 4.3


4.1

  • XX


  • 41I


  • :

  • I0X

  • V X

  • Fhkl

  • J

  • PL

  • D

  • A()


4.2

  • f


Fhkl


  • AA


PL

  • XP1cos22/2

  • L1/2sin2cos


J

  • HKL2HKLJ


(D)

  • D


4.3

  • Fhkl


  • 0


  • 5.1 5.2


5.1

  • 2050X

  • 0.50.8mm


5.2


  • X

  • XX


  • X

  • 1.XX2.3.4.


2

Tube

Detector

R1

R2

Sample


X

SCPCVANTEC-1SiLiHi-Star

  • NaI0.4cps2x10 6 cpsYAP1x10 7 cps

  • SiLi0.01cps

  • VANTEC-1Mikrogap

    -2theta-

  • Hi-starPSDBe


  • NaI

  • YAP


Sol-X

SiLi

2-4; Cu K,;0.01cps,; 50,000 cps


Hi-Star


VNTEC-1

VNTEC-1


  • X

  • 1

  • 2 X


X

  • filter

  • crystal monochromator

  • PHA ( Pulse height Analyzer )

  • Energy resolution using a solid state detector


  • (a) ,(b)

  • K1K2 .

  • K ,

  • (C)

  • K1 K2



  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5


  • 1

  • 2

  • 1

  • 1. 2.3.4.5.6.

  • 2

  • 1.2.

  • 3

  • 1.2.3.


BRUKE D8 X

  • D8 X D8 FOCUS D8 ADVANCE D8 DISCOVERD8 GADDS ,


D8 FOCUS D8 ADVANCE D8 DISCOVER D8 GADDS


  • D8 X;


D8 FOCUS

  • Push-Plug


D8 Advance

  • ()

  • ()

  • Dovetail ()

  • ()

  • 0.2Sv/h

  • 2


D8 Discover

  • X , BondRocking,


D8 DISCOVER with GADDS

  • Powders

  • Texture

  • Stress

  • SAXS

  • Fast speed

  • Micro-diffraction

  • Versatility


Immediate Measurement


On-Line Display and Status Screen


  • a.

  • b.XRK

  • c.

  • d.


a.

  • 3K3000K


b.XRK

  • 1mbar ~10bar

  • 900oC


XRK

  • 900

  • 1mbar - 10 bar


c.

  • :


d.

  • /,

  • Sol-X

  • Goebel:

  • 10% 90%


6. X

  • 6.1 6.2 X


  • XX

  • X

  • XXXCTX

  • XX


6.1

  • X


1 JCPDS

  • 1938Hanawalt)1942ASTM1300ASTM1969JCPDSPDF


2

  • 1).

  • 2).

  • d1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • Ad1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • Bd2d1 d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • Cd3d1d2d4d5d6d7d8

  • Dd4d1d2d3d5d6d7d8

  • 3).

  • d d1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • d2d5d1d3d6d4d8d7

  • Ad2 d3d4d5d6d7d8d1

  • Bd5 d6d7d8 d1d2d3d4

  • C d1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • Dd3 d4d5d6d7d8 d1d2


  • 4)PDF

  • d2

  • 2000JCPDSPDF2000


3.

  • PDFd/I

  • dIII

  • m500 nm

  • d/IPDF2cIPDF2


  • K

  • K1K2

  • <1% (wt) 3

  • Xd


  • KZevin


6.2 X

  • a20.1%


  • Dhkl=K/cos 62

  • Dhklhkl

  • X

  • K


  • d1>d2>d3>d4d1<d2<d3<d4045X


  • IC

  • IA


  • H hkl


  • pole figureinverse pole figurethree dimensional orientation distributionODF


RDF

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4



LB

  • n


  • 1000/2


X


X

  • X10mPSPCGADDSCCDIPGADDSX50m


X

  • 1100nm

  • X6CuK100nmKratky U0.6CuK1000nm


X

  • K1K2


  • Patterson//Rietveld


  • Login