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X— 射线衍射分析基础及应用 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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X— 射线衍射分析基础及应用. 主要参考书. 1. 藤凤恩, X 射线结构分析与材料性能表征,科学出版社, 1997 。 2. 张建中,晶体的射线衍射基础,南京大学出版社, 1992 。 3. 黄胜涛,固体 X 射线学,高等教育出版社, 1990 。 4. 周玉,材料分析测试技术,哈尔滨工业大学出版社, 1998 。 5. 梁栋材, X 射线晶体学基础,科学出版社, 1991 。 6. 肖序刚,晶体结构几何理论,高等教育出版社, 1993 。 7. 李树棠, X 射线衍射实验方法,冶金工业出版社, 1993 。

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X— 射线衍射分析基础及应用

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X

X


X

1. X1997

2. 1992

3. X1990

4. 1998

5. X1991

6. 1993

7. X1993

8. , 2000

9. 2003


X

X

1.1 X1.2 XX1.3 X


X

X1895X

X


1 1 x

1.1 X

X


X

XXX110mm2Kratky212 mm22.7KWXX


X

X3614X611mm20.110 mm2X90


1 2 x x

1.2 XX

X

X10310nm0.050.25nm


X

X

h 6.62510-34Js-1

Xs-1

cX 2.998108ms-1

(nm)


X

X IX

1.X

XX

X


X

X

1Xm0

2X m0

3


X

2.X

K20IXXX


X

X

X

X


X

KX0.63K0.71KKK1K20.004K1 K221KK51

17XKXK


1 3 x

1.3 X

X

X


X

X

XX

XI0Ix

I=I0e-lx

lXXZXl

l=m

mZX

I=I0e-mx


X

XXZ<40Z1Z>40Z2CuNiMoZr


X

X

XGADDSCCDIP

X

X


X

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4


X

2.1


X

2.2

1912X


X


X

(: a, b, c; ,, ,

c

a

b


X

  • 21 abcabc abc


X

CTHROMA


X


X

1PP

2 CC

3II

4FF


Bravais

Bravais

1848


X

32

32


X

230

230


X

2.3

MillerW.H.

1

2


X

2212311/21/36632632


X

hkl z0


X

2.4

dhkld


X


X


X

X

3.1 3.2 3.3


X

3.1

  • 2dsin=n


X

1

XXXXdX


X

2

  • X

  • sin1 n/2d=sin1 ,n2d,n1n=02d

  • Xd/2,X


X

3

  • nd2dhklsin/n =,dHKLdhkl/n

  • 2 dHKLsin=

  • ndHKLhklnhkldHKLdhkl/n


X

  • dHKLHKLH=nhK=nkL=nl


X

4

  • dd


X

3.2

  • 1921Ewald,P.P


X

  • abcabc

  • ab= ac=ba=bc=ca=cb=0

  • aa=bb=cc=1

  • abc


X

  • abcabca100b010c001

  • abc

  • aa

  • bb

  • cc


X

  • ccOP001OP=ccos=d001 acos=d100,bcos=d010

  • a*a, a*=1/a

  • b*b b*=1/b

  • c*c c*=1/c


X

  • V=abc,:V= abc=1/abc=1/VVV1


X

  • r

  • r=Ha+Kb+Lc

  • HKL


X

3.3

  • X, Ewald


X

X

  • 4.1 4.2 4.3


X

4.1

  • XX


X

  • 41I


X

  • :

  • I0X

  • V X

  • Fhkl

  • J

  • PL

  • D

  • A()


X

4.2

  • f


F hkl

Fhkl


X

  • AA


X

PL

  • XP1cos22/2

  • L1/2sin2cos


X

J

  • HKL2HKLJ


X

(D)

  • D


X

4.3

  • Fhkl


X

  • 0


X

  • 5.1 5.2


X

5.1

  • 2050X

  • 0.50.8mm


X

5.2


X

  • X

  • XX


X

  • X

  • 1.XX2.3.4.


X

2

Tube

Detector

R1

R2

Sample


X

X

SCPCVANTEC-1SiLiHi-Star

  • NaI0.4cps2x10 6 cpsYAP1x10 7 cps

  • SiLi0.01cps

  • VANTEC-1Mikrogap

    -2theta-

  • Hi-starPSDBe


X

  • NaI

  • YAP


Sol x

Sol-X

SiLi

2-4; Cu K,;0.01cps,; 50,000 cps


Hi star

Hi-Star


X

VNTEC-1

VNTEC-1


X

  • X

  • 1

  • 2 X


X

X

  • filter

  • crystal monochromator

  • PHA ( Pulse height Analyzer )

  • Energy resolution using a solid state detector


X

  • (a) ,(b)

  • K1K2 .

  • K ,

  • (C)

  • K1 K2


X


X

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5


X

  • 1

  • 2

  • 1

  • 1. 2.3.4.5.6.

  • 2

  • 1.2.

  • 3

  • 1.2.3.


Bruke d8 x

BRUKE D8 X

  • D8 X D8 FOCUS D8 ADVANCE D8 DISCOVERD8 GADDS ,


X

D8 FOCUS D8 ADVANCE D8 DISCOVER D8 GADDS


X

  • D8 X;


D8 focus

D8 FOCUS

  • Push-Plug


D8 advance

D8 Advance

  • ()

  • ()

  • Dovetail ()

  • ()

  • 0.2Sv/h

  • 2


D8 discover

D8 Discover

  • X , BondRocking,


D8 discover with gadds

D8 DISCOVER with GADDS

  • Powders

  • Texture

  • Stress

  • SAXS

  • Fast speed

  • Micro-diffraction

  • Versatility


Immediate measurement

Immediate Measurement


On line display and status screen

On-Line Display and Status Screen


X

  • a.

  • b.XRK

  • c.

  • d.


X

a.

  • 3K3000K


B xrk

b.XRK

  • 1mbar ~10bar

  • 900oC


X

XRK

  • 900

  • 1mbar - 10 bar


X

c.

  • :


X

d.

  • /,

  • Sol-X

  • Goebel:

  • 10% 90%


X

6. X

  • 6.1 6.2 X


X

  • XX

  • X

  • XXXCTX

  • XX


X

6.1

  • X


1 jcpds

1 JCPDS

  • 1938Hanawalt)1942ASTM1300ASTM1969JCPDSPDF


X

2

  • 1).

  • 2).

  • d1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • Ad1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • Bd2d1 d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • Cd3d1d2d4d5d6d7d8

  • Dd4d1d2d3d5d6d7d8

  • 3).

  • d d1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • d2d5d1d3d6d4d8d7

  • Ad2 d3d4d5d6d7d8d1

  • Bd5 d6d7d8 d1d2d3d4

  • C d1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8

  • Dd3 d4d5d6d7d8 d1d2


X

  • 4)PDF

  • d2

  • 2000JCPDSPDF2000


X

3.

  • PDFd/I

  • dIII

  • m500 nm

  • d/IPDF2cIPDF2


X

  • K

  • K1K2

  • <1% (wt) 3

  • Xd


X

  • KZevin


6 2 x

6.2 X

  • a20.1%


X

  • Dhkl=K/cos 62

  • Dhklhkl

  • X

  • K


X

  • d1>d2>d3>d4d1<d2<d3<d4045X


X

  • IC

  • IA


X

  • H hkl


X

  • pole figureinverse pole figurethree dimensional orientation distributionODF


X

RDF

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


X


X

LB

  • n


X

  • 1000/2


X

X


X

X

  • X10mPSPCGADDSCCDIPGADDSX50m


X

X

  • 1100nm

  • X6CuK100nmKratky U0.6CuK1000nm


X

X

  • K1K2


X

  • Patterson//Rietveld


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